Compositional effects on leaching of stain-guarded (perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substance-treated) carpet in landfill leachate.
Improving environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceuticals
This paper presents 10 recommendations for improving the European Medicines Agency’s guidance for environmental risk assessment of human pharmaceutical products. The recommendations are based on up-to-date, available science in combination with experiences from other chemical frameworks such as the REACH-legislation for industrial chemicals. The recommendations concern: expanding the scope of the current guideline; requirements to assess the risk for development of antibiotic resistance; jointly performed assessments; refinement of the test proposal; mixture toxicity assessments on active pharmaceutical ingredients with similar modes of action; use of all available ecotoxicity studies; mandatory reviews; increased transparency; inclusion of emission data from production; and a risk management option. We believe that implementation of our recommendations would strengthen the protection of the environment and be beneficial to society. Legislation and guidance documents need to be updated at regular intervals in order to incorporate new knowledge from the scientific community. This is particularly important for regulatory documents concerning pharmaceuticals in the environment since this is a research field that has been growing substantially in the last decades.
Bacteria-Mediated Effects of Antibiotics on Daphnia Nutrition
Science in Risk Assessment and Policy (SciRAP): an online resource for evaluating and reporting in vivo (eco) toxicity studies
(Eco)toxicity studies conducted according to internationally standardized test guidelines are often considered reliable by default and preferred as key evidence in regulatory risk assessment. At the same time regulatory agencies emphasize the use of all relevant (eco)toxicity data in the risk assessment process, including non-standard studies. However, there is a need to facilitate the use of such studies in regulatory risk assessment. Therefore, we propose a framework that facilitates a systematic and transparent evaluation of the reliability and relevance of (eco)toxicity in vivo studies for health and environmental risk assessment. The framework includes specific criteria to guide study evaluation, as well as a color-coding tool developed to aid the application of these criteria. In addition we provide guidance intended for researchers on how to report non-standard studies to ensure that they meet regulatory requirements. The intention of the evaluating and reporting criteria is to increase the usability of all relevant data that may fill information gaps in chemical risk assessments. The framework is publically available online, free of charge, at the Science in Risk Assessment and Policy (SciRAP) website: www.scirap.org. The aim of this article is to present the framework and resources available at the SciRAP website.
A new strategy for surface modification of polysulfone membrane by in situ imprinted sol-gel method for the selective separation and screening of L-Tyrosine as a lung cancer biomarker
Go Greener with Passive Sampler and Beyond
Thousands of chemicals are commercially produced throughout the world and the total number increases each year. Environmental monitoring is required to access their release to and exposure and effects in the environment. Traditional sampling approaches such as grab and automatic samplings are time/cost consuming and labour intensive. While passive sampling approach can save lot of time and cost in terms of giving a time weighed average (TWA) concentration. Herein we gave an introduction of passive sampler and briefy discussed the necessity of passive sampler and what information that passive sampler can offer. Then we concluded that passive sampling can be a greener way in environmental monitoring and should be paid more attention to particularly for the emerging pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs).
Frequent nucleation events at the high altitude station of Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.), Bolivia
While nucleation may represent one of the major processes responsible for the total aerosol number burden in the atmosphere, and especially at high altitude, new particle formation (NPF) events occurring in the upper part of the troposphere are poorly documented in the literature, particularly in the southern hemisphere. NPF events were detected and analyzed at the highest measurement site in the world, Chacaltaya (5240 m a.s.l.), Bolivia between January 1 and December 31 2012, using a Neutral Aerosol and Ion Spectrometer (NAIS) that detects clusters down to 0.4 nm. NPF frequency at Chacaltaya is one of the highest reported so far (63.9%) and shows a clear seasonal dependency with maximum up to 100% during the dry season. This high seasonality of the NPF events frequency was found to be likely linked to the presence of clouds in the vicinity of the station during the wet season. Multiple NPF events are seen on almost 50% of event days and can reach up to 6 events per day, increasing the potential of nucleation to be the major contributor to the particle number concentrations in the upper troposphere. Ion-induced nucleation (IIN) was 14.8% on average, which is higher than the IIN fractions reported for boundary layer stations. The median formation rate of 2 nm particles computed for first position events is increased during the dry season (1.90 cm(-3) s(-1)) compared to the wet season (1.02 cm(-3) s(-1)), showing that events are more intense, on top of being more frequent during the dry season. On the contrary, particle growth rates (GRs) are on average enhanced during the wet season, which could be explained by higher amount of biogenic volatile organic compounds transported from the Amazon rainforest. The NPF events frequency is clearly enhanced when air masses originate from the oceanic sector, with a frequency of occurrence close to 1. However, based on the particle GRs, we calculate that particles most likely nucleate after the oceanic air masses reach the land and are presumably not originating from the marine free troposphere. The high frequency of NPF events, the occurrence of multiple events per day, and the relatively high formation rates observed at Chacaltaya imply that nucleation and growth are likely to be the major mechanism feeding the upper atmosphere with aerosol particles in this part of the continent.