Health Impact of PM10, PM2.5 and Black Carbon Exposure Due to Different Source Sectors in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Umea, Sweden.

Segersson, D.; Eneroth, K.; Gidhagen, L.; Johansson, C.; Omstedt, G.; Nylén A.E.; Forsberg, B.
2017 | Int J Environ Res Public Health | 14 (7)

The most important anthropogenic sources of primary particulate matter (PM) in ambient air in Europe are exhaust and non-exhaust emissions from road traffic and combustion of solid biomass. There is convincing evidence that PM, almost regardless of source, has detrimental health effects. An important issue in health impact assessments is what metric, indicator and exposure-response function to use for different types of PM. The aim of this study is to describe sectorial contributions to PM exposure and related premature mortality for three Swedish cities: Gothenburg, Stockholm and Umea. Exposure is calculated with high spatial resolution using atmospheric dispersion models. Attributed premature mortality is calculated separately for the main local sources and the contribution from long-range transport (LRT), applying different relative risks. In general, the main part of the exposure is due to LRT, while for black carbon, the local sources are equally or more important. The major part of the premature deaths is in our assessment related to local emissions, with road traffic and residential wood combustion having the largest impact. This emphasizes the importance to resolve within-city concentration gradients when assessing exposure. It also implies that control actions on local PM emissions have a strong potential in abatement strategies.

Making the most of expert judgment in hazard and risk assessment of chemicals

2017 | Toxicology

Evaluation of the reliability and relevance of toxicity and ecotoxicity studies is an integral step in the assessment of the hazards and risks of chemicals. This evaluation is inherently reliant on expert judgment, which often leads to differences between experts’ conclusions regarding how individual studies can contribute
to the body of evidence. The conclusions of regulatory assessment, such as establishing safe exposure levels for humans and the environment and calculations of margins of exposure, may have large consequences for which chemicals are permitted on the market and their allowed uses. It is therefore important that such assessments are based on all reliable and relevant scientific data, and that assessment principles and assumptions, such as expert judgment, are transparently applied. It is not possible nor desirable to completely eliminate expert judgment from the evaluation of (eco)toxicity studies. However, it is desirable to introduce measures that increase structure and transparency in the evaluation process so as to provide scientifically robust risk assessments that can be used for regulatory decision making. In this article we present results from workshop exercises with Nordic experts to illustrate how experts’ evaluations regarding the reliability and relevance of (eco)toxicity studies for risk assessment may vary and discuss methods intended to promote structure and transparency in the evaluation process.

Revising the hygroscopicity of inorganic sea salt particles

Zieger, P.; Väisänen, O.; Corbin, J.; Partridge, D. G.; Bastelberger, S.; Mousavi-Fard, M.; Rosati, B.; Gysel, M.; Krieger, U.; Leck, C.; Nenes, A.; Riipinen, I.; Virtanen, A.; Salter, M.
2017 | Nat. Commun. | 8 (15883)

Sea spray is one of the largest natural aerosol sources and plays an important role in the Earth’s radiative budget. These particles are inherently hygroscopic, that is, they take-up moisture from the air, which affects the extent to which they interact with solar radiation. We demonstrate that the hygroscopic growth of inorganic sea salt is 8–15% lower than pure sodium chloride, most likely due to the presence of hydrates. We observe an increase in hygroscopic growth with decreasing particle size (for particle diameters <150 nm) that is independent of the particle generation method. We vary the hygroscopic growth of the inorganic sea salt within a general circulation model and show that a reduced hygroscopicity leads to a reduction in aerosol-radiation interactions, manifested by a latitudinal-dependent reduction of the aerosol optical depth by up to 15%, while cloud-related parameters are unaffected. We propose that a value of κs=1.1 (at RH=90%) is used to represent the hygroscopicity of inorganic sea salt particles in numerical models.

Metal contamination in harbours impacts life-history traits and metallothi-onein levels in snails.

Bighiu MA; Gorokhova E; Carney-Almroth B; Wiklund AKE.
2017 | PLoS ONE

Harbours with limited water exchange are hotspots of contaminant accumulation. Antifouling paints (AF) contribute to this accumulation by leaching biocides that may affect non-target species. In several leisure boat harbours and reference areas in the Baltic Sea, chronic exposure effects were evaluated using caging experiments with the snail Theodoxus fluviatilis. We analysed variations in ecologically relevant endpoints (mortality, growth and reproduction) in concert with variation in metallothionein-like proteins (MTLP) levels. The latter is a biomarker of exposure to metals, such as copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), which are used in AF paints as active ingredient and stabilizer, respectively. In addition, environmental samples (water, sediment) were analysed for metal (Cu and Zn) and nutrient (total phosphorous and nitrogen) concentrations. All life-history endpoints were negatively affected by the exposure, with higher mortality, reduced growth and lower fecundity in the harbours compared to the reference sites. Metal concentrations were the key explanatory variables for all observed adverse effects, suggesting that metal-driven toxicity, which is likely to stem from AF paints, is a source of anthropogenic stress for biota in the harbours.

Cancer Risk Assessment of Airborne PAHs Based on in Vitro Mixture Potency Factors

Dreij, K.; Mattsson, Å.; Jarvis, I.W.H.; Lim, H.; Hurkmans, J.; Gustafsson, J.; Bergvall, C.; Westerholm, R.; Johansson, C.; Stenius, U.
2017 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 51 (8805-8814)

Complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic
hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common environmental pollutants
associated with adverse human health effects including cancer.
However, the risk of exposure to mixtures is difficult to
estimate, and risk assessment by whole mixture potency
evaluations has been suggested. To facilitate this, reliable in
vitro based testing systems are necessary. Here, we investigated
if activation of DNA damage signaling in vitro could be an
endpoint for developing whole mixture potency factors
(MPFs) for airborne PAHs. Activation of DNA damage
signaling was assessed by phosphorylation of Chk1 and H2AX
using Western blotting. To validate the in vitro approach,
potency factors were determined for seven individual PAHs
which were in very good agreement with established potency factors based on cancer data in vivo. Applying the method using
Stockholm air PAH samples indicated MPFs with orders of magnitude higher carcinogenic potency than predicted by established
in vivo-based potency factors. Applying the MPFs in cancer risk assessment suggested that 45.4 (6% of all) lung cancer cases per year
in Stockholm are due to airborne PAHs. Applying established models resulted in <1 cancer case per year, which is far from expected levels. We conclude that our in vitro based approach for establishing MPFs could be a novel method to assess whole mixture samples of airborne PAHs to improve health risk assessment.

Human exposure to legacy and emerging halogenated flame retardants via inhalation and dust ingestion in a Norwegian cohort.

Tay, J.H.; Sellström, U.; Papadopoulou, E.; Padilla-Sanchez, J.A.; Haug, L.S.; de Wit, C.A.
2017 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 51 (8176-8184)

Human Exposure to Legacy and Emerging Halogenated Flame Retardants via Inhalation and Dust Ingestion in a Norwegian Cohort

Tay, J. H.; U. Sellström; E. Papadopoulou; J. A. Padilla-Sánchez; L. S. Haug; C. A. de Wit
2017 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 51 (14) (8176-8184)

Vitaminbrist i havet

2017 | Havsutsikt | 2017 (1) (18-20)

På 1970-talet dog periodvis stora mängder laxyngel utan att man förstod varför. Syndromet fick namnet M74. Kring millennieskiftet började man hitta allt fler döende sjöfåglar i våra skärgårdar, och ”fågeldöden” blev ett nytt begrepp. Nu finns övertygande bevis för att allvarlig brist på ett vitamin ligger bakom båda dessa fenomen, och att betydligt fler arter är drabbade. Den stora frågan är dock fortfarande hur detta går till.

Current rates and mechanisms of subsea permafrost degradation in the East Siberian Arctic Shelf

Natalia Shakhova; Igor Semiletov; Örjan Gustafsson; Valentin Sergienko; Leopold Lobkovsky; Oleg Dudarev; Vladimir Tumskoy; Michael Grigoriev; Alexey Mazurov; Anatoly Salyuk; Roman Ananiev; Andrey Koshurnikov; Denis Kosmach; Alexander Charkin; Nicolay Dmitrevsky; Victor Karnaukh; Alexey Gunar; Alexander Meluzov; Denis Chernykh
2017 | Nat. Commun. | 8

Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks: Implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods

Papadopoulou, E.; Poothong, S.; Koekkoek, J.; Lucattini, L.; Padilla-Sánchez, J.A.; Haugen M.; Herzke, D.; , Valdersnes, S.; Maage, A.; Cousins, I.T.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Småstuen Haug, L.
2017 | Environ. Res. | 158 (269-276)

Estimating human exposure to perfluoroalkyl acids via solid food and drinks: implementation and comparison of different dietary assessment methods

Papadopoulou, E.; Poothong, S.; Koekkoek, J.; Lucattini, L.; Antonio Padilla-Sánchez, J.; Haugen, M.; Herzke, D.; Valdersnes, S.; Maage, A.; Cousins, I.T.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Småstuen Haug, L.
2017 | ACES, SU

ICCE 2017 | June 21, 2017 | Oslo, Norway

Are perfluoroalkyl acid isomer patterns useful markers of manufacturing origin in atmospheric samples?

2017 | ACES, SU

ICCE 2017 | June 21, 2017 | Oslo, Norway

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Mailing address:
Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry (ACES)
Stockholm University
106 91 Stockholm

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