Siberian Arctic black carbon sources constrained by model and observation

Patrik Winiger; August Andersson; Sabine Eckhardt; Andreas Stohl; Igor P. Semiletov; Oleg V. Dudarev; Alexander Charkin; Natalia Shakhova; Zbigniew Klimont; Chris Heyes; Örjan Gustafsson
2017 | Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.

Model-predicted occurrence of multiple pharmaceuticals in Swedish surface waters and their flushing to the Baltic Sea

Lindim, C.; van Gils, J.; Cousins, I.T.; Kühne, R.; Georgieva, D.; Kutsarova, S.; Mekenyan, O.
2017 | Environ. Pollut. | 223 (595-604)

Impacts on air pollution and health by changing commuting from car to bicycle

Johansson, C.; Lövenheim, B.; Schantz, P.; Wahlgren, L.; Almström, P.; Markstedt, A.; Strömgren, M.; Forsberg, B.; Nilsson Sommar, J.
2017 | Sci. Total Environ. | 584-585 (55-63)

Our study is based on individual data on people’s home and work addresses, as well as their age, sex and physical capacity, in order to establish realistic bicycle-travel distances. A transport model is used to single out data on commuting preferences in the County Stockholm. Our analysis shows there is a very large potential for reducing emissions and exposure if all car drivers living within a distance corresponding to a maximum of a 30 minute bicycle ride to work would change to commuting by bicycle. It would result in more than 111 000 new cyclists, corresponding to an increase of 209% compared to the current situation.
Mean population exposure would be reduced by about 7% for both NOx and black carbon (BC) in the most densely populated area of the inner city of Stockholm. Applying a relative risk for NOx of 8% decrease in all-cause mortality associated with a 10 µg m-3 decrease in NOx, this corresponds to more than 449 (95% CI: 340 - 558) years of life saved annually for the Stockholm county area with 2.1 million inhabitants. This is more than double the effect of the reduced mortality estimated for the introduction of congestion charge in Stockholm in 2006. Using NO2 or BC as indicator of health impacts, we obtain 395 (95% CI: 172 - 617) and 185 (95% CI: 158 - 209) years of life saved for the population, respectively. The calculated exposure of BC and its corresponding impacts on mortality are likely underestimated. With this in mind the estimates using NOx, NO2 and BC show quite similar health impacts considering the 95% confidence intervals.

Process-based modelling of the methane balance in periglacial landscapes (JSBACH-methane)

Kaiser, S.; Göckede, M.; Castro-Morales, K.; Knoblauch, C.; Ekici, A.; Kleinen, T.; Zubrzycki, S.; Sachs, T.; Wille, C.; Beer, C.
2017 | Geosci. Model Dev. | 10 (333-358)

Towards the review of the European Union Water Framework management of chemical contamination in European surface water resources

Brack, W.; Dulio, V.; Ågerstrand, M.; Allan, I.; Altenburger, R.; Brinkmann, M.; Bunke, D.; Burgess, R.M.; Cousins, I.T.; Escher, B.I.; Hernández, F.J.; Hewitt, L.M.; Hilscherová, K.; Hollender, J.l.; Hollert, H.; Kase, R.; Klauer, B.; Lindim, C.; Herráez, D.L.; Miège, C.; Munthe, J.; O'Toole, S.; Posthuma, L.; Rüdel, H.; Schäfer, R.B.; Sengl, M.; Smedes, F.; van de Meent, D.; van den Brink, P.J.; van Gils, J.; van Wezel, A.P.; Vethaak, A.D.; Vermeirssen, E.l.; von der Ohe, P.C.; Vrana, B.
2017 | Sci. Total Environ. | 576 (720-737)

Dioxin-like activities, halogenated flame retardants, organophosphate esters and chlorinated paraffins in dust from Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, Sweden and China.

Wong, F.; Suzuki, G.; Michinaka, C.; Yuan, B.; Takigami, H.; de Wit, C.A.
2017 | Chemosphere | 168 (1248-1256)

SCREENING OF GENOTOXICITY AND MUTAGENICITY IN EXTRACTABLE ORGANICS FROM OIL SANDS PROCESS-AFFECTED WATER

Zetouni, NC; Siraki, AG; Weinfeld, M; Pereira, AD; Martin, JW
2017 | Environ. Toxicol. Chem. | 36 (5) (1397-1404)
assay , contaminants of emerging concern , genetic toxicology , genotoxicity , goldfish , mixture toxicology , naphthenic acids , oil sands , region , responses , sos chromotest , subchronic exposures , tailings , toxicity , yellow perch

Large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are produced by the oil sands surface mining industry during alkaline hot-water extraction of bitumen. It is well documented that the acid extractable organics (AEOs) in OSPW, a highly complex mixture of acidic and polar neutral substances, are acutely toxic; but few studies have examined the genotoxicity or mutagenicity of this mixture. In the present study, the in vitro SOS Chromotest and the Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains) were used to evaluate genotoxicity and mutagenicity for whole OSPW AEOs in the presence and absence of biotransformation by rat S9 liver enzymes. Two subfractions were also examined in the same assays: neutral extractable fraction (F1-NE), and the subsequent acid extractable fraction (F2-AE). In the SOS assay, whole AEO was cytotoxic when concentrated 2 x (i.e., twice as concentrated as the environmental sample) and showed increasing genotoxic response above 6x. Co-exposure with S9 had a protective effect on the cell SOS-inducing factor and survival but did not eliminate genotoxicity above 6 x concentrations. Most of the cytotoxicity was attributable to F2-AE, but both F1-NE and F2-AE had similar genotoxic dose-responses above 6 x. In the Ames test without S9, whole AEO was mutagenic in both strains above 10x concentrations. Co-incubation with S9 had little effect on the TA100 strain but with TA98 resulted in bioactivation at midlevel doses (1.5-6.3x) and protection at higher doses (10-25x). The 2 subfractions were mutagenic in both strains but with different dose-responses. Further research in vivo or in more relevant cells is warranted to investigate the carcinogenic risks of OSPW. (C) 2016 SETAC

Biosynthesis of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the correlation with photosynthetic pigments in the red alga Ceramium tenuicorne

Lindqvist, D; Dahlgren, E; Asplund, L
2017 | Phytochemistry | 133 (51-58)

Lung function in asphalt workers: a longitudinal study

Bente Ulvestad; Britt Grethe Randem; Øyvind Skare; Trond Mogens Aaloekken; Georg Karl Myranek; Karine Elihn; May Brit Lund
2017 | Int Arch Occup Environ Health | 90 (1) (63-71)

Chemical and toxicological characterizations of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water

He, YH; Flynn, SL; Folkerts, EJ; Zhang, YF; Ruan, DL; Alessi, DS; Martin, JW; Goss, GG
2017 | Water Res. | 114 (78-87)
acid , aquatic toxicity , aryl phosphate esters , drinking water , gas operations , hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced , marcellus , oil , oxidative stress , pah , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons , sands process water , synergistic effect , toxicity , trout oncorhynchus-mykiss , water (hf-fpw)

Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has emerged as a major method of unconventional oil and gas recovery. The toxicity of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water (HF-FPW) has not been previously reported and is complicated by the combined complexity of organic and inorganic constituents in HF fluids and deep formation water. In this study, we characterized the solids, salts, and organic signatures in an HF-FPW sample from the Duvernay Formation, Alberta, Canada. Untargeted HPLC-Orbitrap revealed numerous unknown dissolved polar organics. Among the most prominent peaks, a substituted tri-phenyl phosphate was identified which is likely an oxidation product of a common polymer antioxidant. Acute toxicity of zebrafish embryo was attributable to high salinity and organic contaminants in HF-FPW with LC50 values ranging from 0.6% to 3.9%, depending on the HF-FPW fractions and embryo developmental stages. Induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was detected, due in part to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and suspended solids might have a synergistic effect on EROD induction. This study demonstrates that toxicological profiling of real HF-FPW sample presents great challenges for assessing the potential risks and impacts posed by HF-FPW spills. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Refining tools to bridge the gap between academia and chemical regulation: perspectives for WikiREACH

Agerstrand, M; Brenig, M; Fuhr, M; Schenten, J
2017 | Environ. Sci.-Process Impacts | 19 (12) (1466-1473)
impact , improve , information-system , pharmaceuticals , reach , risk assessment , swedish environmental classification
Regulatory hazard and risk assessments of chemical substances have to include all reliable and relevant data to be credible and complete. However, screening the literature for appropriate studies and extracting data is burdensome. Therefore, reducing impediments by making data easily and readily accessible to risk assessors could result in more comprehensive hazard and risk assessments. In this paper, we study WikiPharma, a database that aggregates ecotoxicity data for pharmaceuticals, extracted from peerreviewed studies. The use of the WikiPharma database is explored to develop strategies on how similar tools can bridge between science and policy by providing risk assessors with easily accessible summary data. Specifically, adapting the concept of WikiPharma to industrial chemicals regulated under the REACH regulation is discussed. Experiences with WikiPharma show that there is interest in using peerreviewed studies in regulatory decision-making. However, tools like WikiPharma require constant updates. Hence, as for "WikiREACH", effective incentives are needed to motivate researchers to feed in relevant data for regulatory assessments. Besides, support by automated processes can aid in the labourintensive activity of gathering data. To ensure that such a tool is continuously maintained and compatible with the regulatory system, and thereby useful for hazard and risk assessments of chemicals, it would benefit from being developed in collaboration with the major stakeholders in the field, i.e. regulatory agencies, academia, industry, scientific journals, and providers of research network platforms.

In vitro genotoxicity of airborne Ni-NP in air-liquid interface

Siiri Latvala; Daniel Vare; Hanna L. Karlsson; Karine Elihn
2017 | J Appl Toxicol | doi 10.1002/jat.3510

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