Combined effects of heatwaves and micropollutants on freshwater ecosystems: Towards an integrated assessment of extreme events in multiple stressors research

Polazzo, Francesco; Roth, Sabrina, K.; Hermann, Markus; Mangold-Döring, Annika; Rico, Andreu; Sobek, Anna; Van den Brink, Paul; Jackson, Michelle, C.
2021 | Glob. Change Biol. (1-20)

What is in Nigerian waters? Target and non-target screening analysis for organic chemicals

Hu, L-X.; Olaitan, O.J.; Li, Z.; Yang, Y-Y.; Chimezie, A.; Adepoju-Bello, A.A.; Ying, G-G.; Chen, C-E.
2021 | Chemosphere | 284

Micropollutants in four Brazilian water reservoirs

Quadra, G.R.; Li, Z.; Barros, N.; Roland, F.; Sobek, A.
2021 | Limnologica | 90

Wide-angle X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations of supercooled protein hydration water

Maddalena Bin; Rafat Yousif; Sharon Berkowicz; Sudipta Das; Daniel Schlesinger; Fivos Perakis
2021 | Phys Chem Chem Phys

Understanding the mechanism responsible for the protein low-temperature crossover observed at T ≈ 220 K can help us improve current cryopreservation technologies. This crossover is associated with changes in the dynamics of the system, such as in the mean-squared displacement, whereas experimental evidence of structural changes is sparse. Here we investigate hydrated lysozyme proteins by using a combination of wide-angle X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Experimentally we suppress crystallization by accurate control of the protein hydration level, which allows access to temperatures down to T = 175 K. The experimental data indicate that the scattering intensity peak at Q = 1.54 Å−1, attributed to interatomic distances, exhibits temperature-dependent changes upon cooling. In the MD simulations it is possible to decompose the water and protein contributions and we observe that, while the protein component is nearly temperature independent, the hydration water peak shifts in a fashion similar to that of bulk water. The observed trends are analysed by using the water–water and water-protein radial distribution functions, which indicate changes in the local probability density of hydration water.

The global threat from plastic pollution

Matthew MacLeod; Hans Peter H. Arp; Mine B. Tekman; Annika Jahnke
2021 | Science, 373 (6550) (61-65)

Plastic pollution accumulating in an area of the environment is considered “poorly reversible” if natural mineralization processes occurring there are slow and engineered remediation solutions are improbable. Should negative outcomes in these areas arise as a consequence of plastic pollution, they will be practically irreversible. Potential impacts from poorly reversible plastic pollution include changes to carbon and nutrient cycles; habitat changes within soils, sediments, and aquatic ecosystems; co-occurring biological impacts on endangered or keystone species; ecotoxicity; and related societal impacts. The rational response to the global threat posed by accumulating and poorly reversible plastic pollution is to rapidly reduce plastic emissions through reductions in consumption of virgin plastic materials, along with internationally coordinated strategies for waste management.

Major lead exposure from hunting ammunition in eagles from Sweden

Björn Helander; Oliver Krone; Jannikke Räikkönen; Marcus Sundbom; Erik Ågren; Anders Bignert
2021 | Sci. Total Environ. | 735

Exposure to lead (Pb) from ammunition in scavenging and raptorial birds has achieved worldwide recognition based on incidences of lethal poisoning, but exposure implies also sublethal levels with potential harmful effects. Background and elevated Pb levels in liver from 116 golden eagles (GE, Aquila chrysaetos) and 200 white-tailed Sea eagles (WTSE, Haliaeetus albicilla) from Sweden 2003–2011 are here examined, with supporting data from a previous WTSE report and eagle owl (EO, Bubu bubo) report. GE and WTSE display seasonal patterns, with no Pb level exceeding a generally accepted threshold for subclinical effects during summer but strongly elevated levels from October. Fledged juveniles show significantly lower levels than all other age classes, but reach levels found in older birds in autumn after the start of hunting seasons. Pb levels in EO (non-scavenger) show no seasonal changes and indicate no influence from ammunition, and are close to levels observed in juvenile eagles before October. In all, 15% WTSE and 7% GE were lethally poisoned. In areas with high-exposure to hunting ammunition, 24% of WTSE showed lethal Pb levels, compared to 7% in both eagle species from low-exposure areas. Lethal poisoning of WTSE remained as frequent after (15%) as before (13%) a partial ban on use of Pb-based shotgun ammunition over shallow waters (2002). Pb levels increased significantly in WTSE 1981–2011, in contrast to other biota from the same period. A significant decrease of Pb in WTSE liver occurred below a threshold at 0.25 μg/g (dry weight), exceeded by 81% of the birds. Trend patterns in Pb isotope ratios lend further support to this estimated cut-off level for environmental background concentrations. Pb from spent ammunition affects a range of scavenging and predatory species. A shift to Pb-free ammunition to save wildlife from unnecessary harm is an important environmental and ethical issue.

A health economic assessment of air pollution effects under climate neutral vehicle fleet scenarios in Stockholm, Sweden

Kriit, H.,; Nilsson Sommar, J.,; Forsberg, B.; Åström, S.; Svensson, M.; Johansson, C.

Finding essentiality feasible: common questions and misinterpretations concerning the “essential-use” concept

Cousins, I.T.; DeWitt, J.C.; Glüge, J.; Goldenman, G.; Herzke, D.; Lohmann, R.; Miller, M.; Ng, C.A.; Patton, S.; Scheringer, M.; Trier, X.; Vierke, L.; Wang, Z.; DeWitt, J.C.
2021 | Environ. Sci.-Process Impacts | 23 (1079-1087)

Near-Source Risk Functions for Particulate Matter Are Critical When Assessing the Health Benefits of Local Abatement Strategies

Segersson, D.; Johansson, C.; Forsberg, B.
2021 | Int J Environ Res Public Health | 18

Bioconcentration of Several Series of Cationic Surfactants in Rainbow Trout

Amelie Kierkegaard; Marcus Sundbom; Bo Yuan; James M. Armitage; Jon A. Arnot; Steven T. J. Droge; and Michael S. McLachlan
2021 | Environ. Sci. Technol.

Cationic surfactants have a strong affinity to sorb to phospholipid membranes and thus possess an inherent potential to bioaccumulate, but there are few measurements of bioconcentration in fish. We measured the bioconcentration of 10 alkylamines plus two quaternary ammonium compounds in juvenile rainbow trout at pH 7.6, and repeated the measurements at pH 6.2 for 6 of these surfactants. The BCF of the amines with chain lengths ≤ C14 was positively correlated with chain length, increasing ∼0.5 log units per carbon. Their BCF was also pH dependent and approximately proportional to the neutral fraction of the amine in the water. The BCFs of the quaternary ammonium compounds showed no pH dependence and were >2 orders of magnitude less than for amines of the same chain length at pH 7.6. This indicates that systemic uptake of permanently charged cationic surfactants is limited. The behavior of the quaternary ammonium compounds and the two C16 amines studied was consistent with previous observations that these surfactants accumulate primarily to the gills and external surfaces of the fish. At pH 7.6 the BCF exceeded 2000 L kg–1 for 4 amines with chains ≥ C13, showing that bioconcentration can be considerable for some longer chained cationic surfactants.

A long-term study of cloud residuals from low-level Arctic clouds

Linn Karlsson; Radovan Krejci; Makoto Koike; Kerstin Ebell; Paul Zieger
2021 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 21 (1-27)

To constrain uncertainties in radiative forcings associated with aerosol–cloud interactions, improved understanding of Arctic cloud formation is required, yet long-term measurements of the relevant cloud and aerosol properties remain sparse. We present the first long-term study of cloud residuals, i.e. particles that were involved in cloud formation and cloud processes, in Arctic low-level clouds measured at Zeppelin Observatory, Svalbard. To continuously sample cloud droplets and ice crystals and separate them from non-activated aerosol, a ground-based counter-flow virtual impactor inlet system (GCVI) was used. A detailed evaluation of the GCVI measurements, using concurrent cloud particle size distributions, meteorological parameters, and aerosol measurements, is presented for both warm and cold clouds, and the potential contribution of sampling artefacts is discussed in detail. We find an excellent agreement of the GCVI sampling efficiency of liquid clouds using two independent approaches. The 2-year data set of cloud residual size distributions and number concentrations reveals that the cloud residuals follow the typical seasonal cycle of Arctic aerosol, with a maximum concentration in spring and summer and a minimum concentration in the late autumn and winter months. We observed average activation diameters in the range of 58–78 nm for updraught velocities below 1 m s−1. A cluster analysis also revealed cloud residual size distributions that were dominated by Aitken mode particles down to around 20–30 nm. During the winter months, some of these small particles may be the result of ice, snow, or ice crystal shattering artefacts in the GCVI inlet; however, cloud residuals down to 20 nm in size were also observed during conditions when artefacts are less likely.

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Stockholm University
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