alpha-pinene ozonolysis , chemical-ionization , evaporation kinetics , ionization mass-spectrometry , low volatility compounds , molecular composition , multilayer model , oligomer content , solid-state , vapor-pressures
Chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) techniques have been developed that allow for quantitative and composition-resolved measurements of organic compounds as they desorb from secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles, in particular during their heat-induced evaporation. One such technique employs the Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsol (FIGAERO). Here, we present a newly developed model framework with the main aim of reproducing FIGAERO-CIMS thermograms: signal vs. ramped desorption temperature. The model simulates the desorption of organic compounds during controlled heating of filter-sampled SOA particles, plus the subsequent transport of these compounds through the FIGAERO manifold into an iodide-CIMS. Desorption is described by a modified Hertz-Knudsen equation and controlled chiefly by the temperature-dependent saturation concentration C*, mass accommodation (evaporation) coefficient, and particle surface area. Subsequent transport is governed by interactions with filter and manifold surfaces. Reversible accretion reactions (oligomer formation and decomposition) and thermal decomposition are formally described following the Arrhenius relation. We use calibration experiments to tune instrument-specific parameters and then apply the model to a test case: measurements of SOA generated from dark ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. We then discuss the ability of the model to describe thermograms from simple calibration experiments and from complex SOA, and the associated implications for the chemical and physical properties of the SOA. For major individual compositions observed in our SOA test case (#C = 8 to 10), the thermogram peaks can typically be described by assigning C*(25 degrees C) values in the range 0.05 to 5 mu g m(-3), leaving the larger, high-temperature fractions (> 50 %) of the thermograms to be described by thermal decomposition, with dissociation rates on the order of similar to 1 h 1 at 25 degrees C. We conclude with specific experimental designs to better constrain instrumental model parameters and to aid in resolving remaining ambiguities in the interpretation of more complex SOA thermogram behaviors. The model allows retrieval of quantitative volatility and mass transport information from FIGAERO thermograms, and for examining the effects of various environmental or chemical conditions on such properties.
atmospheric aerosol , back trajectory analysis , concentrations trends , elemental composition , ions , k-puszta , long range transport , particles , particulate matter , pollution hot-spot , positive matrix factorization , size , source apportionment , source identification , trace elements
From December 1993 to January 1995 and from October 2009 to October 2010, a total of 320 and 365 daily samples of the PM2.5 were collected at a rural background site (National Atmospheric Observatory Koetice) in Central Europe. The PM2.5 samples were analyzed for 29 and 26 elements respectively by Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and water-soluble inorganic ions by Ion Chromatography (IC) in 2009/2010. The Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) was applied to the chemical composition of PM2.5 to determine its sources. The decreasing trends of almost all elements concentrations, especially the metals regulated by the EU Directive (2004/107/EC) are evident. The annual median ratios indicate a decrease in concentrations of the PM2.5 elements. The slight increase of K concentrations and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient r(s) 0.09 K/Se points to a rise in residential wood combustion. The S concentrations are nearly comparable (higher mean in 2009/2010, while the annual median ratio is under 1). The five major source types in the mid-1990s were ascribed to brown coal combustion, oil combustion, sea salt and dust - long-range transport, re-suspended dust and black coal combustion. The industrial combustion of brown and/or black coal (r(s) 0.75 Se/As, r(s) 0.57 Ga/Ge and r(s) 0.20 As/Zn) and oil (r(s) 0.72 V/Ni) of the regional origin dominated. In the 1990s, the potential source regions were the border area of Czech Republic, German and Poland (brown coal), the Moravia-Silesia region at the Czech-Polish border (black coal), and Slovakia, Austria, Hungary, and the Balkans (oil). In 2009/2010, the apportioned sources were sulfate, residential heating, nitrate, industry, re-suspended dust, and sea salt and dust long-range transport. The secondary sulfate from coal combustion and residential biomass burning (r(s) 0.96, K/K+) of local origin dominated. The declining trend of the elemental concentrations and change in the source pattern of the regional background PM2.5 in Central Europe between the mid-1990s and 2009/10 reflects the economic transformation and impact of stricter legislation in Central Europe. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
aerosol-particles , air ion spectrometer , atmospheric nucleation , boreal forest , boundary layer , formation events , growth-rates , intermediate ions , neutral cluster , size distribution
We investigated atmospheric new particle formation (NPF) in the Amazon rainforest using direct measurement methods. To our knowledge this is the first direct observation of NPF events in the Amazon region. However, previous observations elsewhere in Brazil showed the occurrence of nucleation-mode particles. Our measurements covered two field sites and both the wet and dry season. We measured the variability of air ion concentrations (0.8-12 nm) with an ion spectrometer between September 2011 and January 2014 at a rainforest site (T0t). Between February and October 2014, the same measurements were performed at a grassland pasture site (T3) as part of the GoAmazon 2014/5 experiment, with two intensive operating periods (IOP1 and IOP2 during the wet and the dry season, respectively). The GoAmazon 2014/5 experiment was designed to study the influence of anthropogenic emissions on the changing climate in the Amazon region. The experiment included basic aerosol and trace gas measurements at the ground, remote sensing instrumentation, and two aircraft-based measurements. The results presented in this work are from measurements performed at ground level at both sites. The site inside the rainforest (T0t) is located 60 km NNW of Manaus and influenced by pollution about once per week. The pasture (T3) site is located 70 km downwind from Manaus and influenced by the Manaus pollution plume typically once per day or every second day, especially in the afternoon. No NPF events were observed inside the rainforest (site T0t) at ground level during the measurement period. However, rain-induced ion and particle bursts (hereafter, "rain events") occurred frequently (643 of 1031 days) at both sites during the wet and dry season, being most frequent during the wet season. During the rain events, the ion concentrations in three size ranges (0.8-2, 2-4, and 4-12 nm) increased up to about 10(4)-10(5) cm(-3). This effect was most pronounced in the intermediate and large size ranges, for which the background ion concentrations were about 10-15 cm(-3) compared with 700 cm(-3) for the cluster ion background. We observed eight NPF events at the pasture site during the wet season. We calculated the growth rates and formation rates of neutral particles and ions for the size ranges 2-3 and 3-7 nm using the ion spectrometer data. The observed median growth rates were 0.8 and 1.6 nm h(-1) for 2-3 nm sized ions and particles, respectively, with larger growth rates (13.3 and 7.9 nm h(-1)) in the 3-7 nm size range. The measured nucleation rates were of the order of 0.2 cm(-3) s(-1) for particles and 4-9 x 10(-3) cm(-3) s(-1) for ions. There was no clear difference in the sulfuric acid concentrations between the NPF event days and nonevent days (similar to 9 x 10(5) cm(-3)). The two major differences between the NPF days and nonevent days were a factor of 1.8 lower condensation sink on NPF event days (1.8 x 10(-3) s(-1)) compared to nonevents (3.2 x 10(-3) s(-1)) and different air mass origins. To our knowledge, this is the first time that results from ground-based sub-3 nm aerosol particle measurements have been obtained from the Amazon rainforest.
1st-order transition , diffraction , dynamics , high-density , hyperquenched glassy water , liquid water , neutron-scattering , phases , pressure-induced amorphization , xii
The structure factor and oxygen-oxygen pair distribution functions of amorphous ices at liquid nitrogen temperature (T = 77 K) have been derived from wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) up to interatomic distances of r = 23 angstrom, where local structure differences between the amorphous ices can be seen for the entire range. The distances to the first coordination shell for low-, high-, and very-high-density amorphous ice (LDA, HDA, VHDA) were determined to be 2.75, 2.78, and 2.80 angstrom, respectively, with high accuracy due to measurements up to a large momentum transfer of 23 angstrom(-1). Similarities in pair-distribution functions between LDA and supercooled water at 254.1 K, HDA and liquid water at 365.9 K, and VHDA and high-pressure liquid water were found up to around 8 angstrom, but beyond that at longer distances, the similarities were lost. In addition, the structure of the high-density amorphous ices was compared to high-pressure crystalline ices IV, IX, and XII, and conclusions were drawn about the local ordering.
dynamics , in-situ characterization , individual particles , ionization , nanoparticles , performance , pulse , reaction-kinetics , size , splat ii
Size, composition, and mixing state of individual aerosol particles can be analysed in real time using single-article mass spectrometry (SPMS). In SPMS, laser ablation is the most widely used method for desorption and ionization of particle components, often realizing both in one single step. Excimer lasers are well suited for this task due to their relatively high power density (10(7)-10(10)Wcm(-2)) in nanosecond (ns) pulses at ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and short triggering times. However, varying particle optical properties and matrix effects make a quantitative interpretation of this analytical approach challenging. In atmospheric SPMS applications, this influences both the mass fraction of an individual particle that is ablated, as well as the resulting mass spectral fragmentation pattern of the ablated material. The present study explores the use of shorter (femtosecond, fs) laser pulses for atmospheric SPMS. Its objective is to assess whether the higher laser power density of the fs laser leads to a more complete ionization of the entire particle and higher ion signal and thus improvement in the quantitative abilities of SPMS. We systematically investigate the influence of power density and pulse duration on airborne particle (polystyrene latex, SiO2, NH4NO3, NaCl, and custom-made core-shell particles) ablation and reproducibility of mass spectral signatures. We used a laser ablation aerosol time-of-flight single-particle mass spectrometer (LAAPTOF, AeroMegt GmbH), originally equipped with an excimer laser (wavelength 193 nm, pulse width 8 ns, pulse energy 4 mJ), and coupled it to an fs laser (Spectra Physics Solstice-100F ultrafast laser) with similar pulse energy but longer wavelengths (266 nm with 100 fs and 0.2 mJ, 800 nm with 100 fs and 3.2 mJ). We successfully coupled the free-firing fs laser with the single-particle mass spectrometer employing the fs laser light scattered by the particle to trigger mass spectra acquisition. Generally, mass spectra exhibit an increase in ion intensities (factor 1 to 5) with increasing laser power density (similar to 10(9) to similar to 10(13)Wcm(-2)/from ns to fs laser. At the same time, fs-laser ablation produces spectra with larger ion fragments and ion clusters as well as clusters with oxygen, which does not render spectra interpretation more simple compared to ns-laser ablation. The idea that the higher power density of the fs laser leads to a more complete particle ablation and ionization could not be substantiated in this study. Quantification of ablated material remains difficult due to incomplete ionization of the particle. Furthermore, the fs-laser application still suffers from limitations in triggering it in a useful time frame. Further studies are needed to test potential advantages of fs-over ns-laser ablation in SPMS.
1570 m a.s.l. , air-mass transport , convective boundary-layer , in situ measurements , long range transport , lower free troposphere , montsec southern pyrenees , particle formation , subtropical north-atlantic , western mediterranean basin
High altitude stations are often emphasized as free tropospheric measuring sites but they remain influenced by atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) air masses due to convective transport processes. The local and meso-scale topographical features around the station are involved in the convective boundary layer development and in the formation of thermally induced winds leading to ABL air lifting. The station altitude alone is not a sufficient parameter to characterize the ABL influence. In this study, a topography analysis is performed allowing calculation of a newly defined index called ABL-TopoIndex. The ABL-TopoIndex is constructed in order to correlate with the ABL influence at the high altitude stations and long-term aerosol time series are used to assess its validity. Topography data from the global digital elevation model GTopo30 were used to calculate five parameters for 43 high and 3 middle altitude stations situated on five continents. The geometric mean of these five parameters determines a topography based index called ABL-TopoIndex, which can be used to rank the high altitude stations as a function of the ABL influence. To construct the ABL-TopoIndex, we rely on the criteria that the ABL influence will be low if the station is one of the highest points in the mountainous massif, if there is a large altitude difference between the station and the valleys or high plains, if the slopes around the station are steep, and finally if the inverse drainage basin potentially reflecting the source area for thermally lifted pollutants to reach the site is small. All stations on volcanic islands exhibit a low ABL-TopoIndex, whereas stations in the Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau have high ABL-TopoIndex values. Spearman's rank correlation between aerosol optical properties and number concentration from 28 stations and the ABL-TopoIndex, the altitude and the latitude are used to validate this topographical approach. Statistically significant (SS) correlations are found between the 5th and 50th percentiles of all aerosol parameters and the ABL-TopoIndex, whereas no SS correlation is found with the station altitude. The diurnal cycles of aerosol parameters seem to be best explained by the station latitude although a SS correlation is found between the amplitude of the diurnal cycles of the absorption coefficient and the ABL-TopoIndex.
biochemical-composition , biodiesel production , chlorella-vulgaris , direct transesterification , fuel properties , lipid extraction , lipids , marine microalgae , nannochloropsis-oculata , nutrient removal , preservation techniques , solid phase extraction , thin-layer chromatography , wastewater
A systematic qualitative and quantitative analysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) is crucial for microalgae species selection for biodiesel production. The aim of this study is to identify the best method to assess microalgae FAMEs composition and content. A single-step method, was tested with and without purification steps-that is, separation of lipid classes by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) or solid-phase extraction (SPE). The efficiency of a direct transesterification method was also evaluated. Additionally, the yield of the FAMEs and the profiles of the microalgae samples with different pretreatments (boiled in isopropanol, freezing, oven-dried and freeze-dried) were compared. The application of a purification step after lipid extraction proved to be essential for an accurate FAMEs characterisation. The purification methods, which included TLC and SPE, provided superior results compared to not purifying the samples. Freeze-dried microalgae produced the lowest FAMEs yield. However, FAMEs profiles were generally equivalent among the pretreatments.
atmospheric aerosols , basin , growth , isoprene epoxydiols , particle formation , secondary organic aerosol , sulfuric acid , trace gases , upper troposphere , wet season
The Amazon Basin is a unique region to study atmospheric aerosols, given their relevance for the regional hydrological cycle and the large uncertainty of their sources. Multi-year datasets are crucial when contrasting periods of natural conditions and periods influenced by anthropogenic emissions. In the wet season, biogenic sources and processes prevail, and the Amazonian atmospheric composition resembles preindustrial conditions. In the dry season, the basin is influenced by widespread biomass burning emissions. This work reports multi-year observations of high time resolution submicrometer (10-600 nm) particle number size distributions at a rain forest site in Amazonia (TT34 tower, 60 km NW from Manaus city), between 2008 and 2010 and 2012 and 2014. The median particle number concentration was 403 cm(-3) in the wet season and 1254 cm(-3) in the dry season. The Aitken mode (similar to 30-100 nm in diameter) was prominent during the wet season, while the accumulation mode (similar to 100-600 nm in diameter) dominated the particle size spectra during the dry season. Cluster analysis identified groups of aerosol number size distributions influenced by convective downdrafts, nucleation events and fresh biomass burning emissions. New particle formation and subsequent growth was rarely observed during the 749 days of observations, similar to previous observations in the Amazon Basin. A stationary 1-D column model (ADCHEM Aerosol Dynamics, gas and particle phase CHEMistry and radiative transfer model) was used to assess the importance of the processes behind the observed diurnal particle size distribution trends. Three major particle source types are required in the model to reproduce the observations: (i) a surface source of particles in the evening, possibly related to primary biological emissions; (ii) entrainment of accumulation mode aerosols in the morning; and (iii) convective downdrafts transporting Aitken mode particles into the boundary layer mostly during the afternoon. The latter process has the largest influence on the modeled particle number size distributions. However, convective downdrafts are often associated with rain and, thus, act as both a source of Aitken mode particles and a sink of accumulation mode particles, causing a net reduction in the median total particle number concentrations in the surface layer. Our study shows that the combination of the three mentioned particle sources is essential to sustain particle number concentrations in Amazonia.
algae , anaerobic co-digestion , biofuel production , biofuels , biogas production , biohydrogen production , carbon-dioxide , chlorella-pyrenoidosa , co2 , flue gases , hydrothermal liquefaction , microalga scenedesmus-obliquus , nitrogen , nutrient removal , of-the-art , phosphorus , wastewater
Algae are without doubt the most productive photosynthetic organisms on Earth; they are highly efficient in converting CO2 and nutrients into biomass. These abilities can be exploited by culturing microalgae from wastewater and flue gases for effective wastewater reclamation. Algae are known to remove nitrogen and phosphorus as well as several organic contaminants including pharmaceuticals from wastewater. Biomass production can even be enhanced by the addition of CO2 originating from flue gases. The algal biomass can then be used as a raw material to produce bioenergy; depending on its composition, various types of biofuels such as biodiesel, biogas, bioethanol, biobutanol or biohydrogen can be obtained. However, algal biomass generated in wastewater and flue gases also contains contaminants which, if not degraded, will end up in the ashes. In this review, the current knowledge on algal biomass production in wastewater and flue gases is summarized; special focus is given to the algal capacity to remove contaminants from wastewater and flue gases, and the consequences when converting this biomass into different types of biofuels.