Microbial degradation of hydrophobic emerging contaminants from marine sediment slurries (Capbreton Canyon) to pure bacterial strain

Azaroff A; Mathilde M; Miossec C; Gassie C; Guyneaud R
2021 | J. Hazard. Mater.

Sorption of PFOS in 114 Well-characterized Tropical and Temperate Soils: Application of Multivariate and Artificial Neural Network Analyses

Umeh, A,; Naidu, R.; Shilpi, S.; Boateng, E.; Rahman, Md. A.; Cousins, I.T.; Chadalavada, S.; Lamb, D.; Bowman, M.
2021 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 55 (3) (1779-1789)

Assessing the social-ecological status of the Baltic Sea

Blenckner, T.; Möllmann, C.; Lowndes, J.S.; Griffiths, J.R.; Campbell, E.; De Cervo, A.; Belgrano, A.; Boström, C.; Fleming, V.; Frazier, M.; Neuenfeldt, S.; Niiranen, S.; Nilsson, A.; Ojaveer, H.; Olsson, J.; Palmlöv, C.S.; Quaas, M.; Wilfried, R.; Sobek, A.; Viitasalo, M.; Wikström, S.A.; Halpern, B.S.
2021 | People Nat. | 00 (1-17)

The Baltic Sea: an ecosystem with multiple stressors.

Dietz, R.; Sonne, C.; Jenssen, B.M.; Das, K.; de Wit, C.A.; Harding, K.; Siebert, U.; Olsen M.T.
2021 | Environ Int | 147 (106324-(1-5))

Human Exposure to Chlorinated Paraffins via Inhalation and Dust Ingestion in a Norwegian Cohort

Yuan B.; Tay, J.H.; Papadopoulou, E.; Haug, L.S.; Padilla-Sánchez, J.A.; de Wit, C.A.
2021 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 55 (1145-1154)

Can determination of extractable organofluorine (EOF) be standardized? First interlaboratory comparisons of EOF and fluorine mass balance in sludge and water matrices

Karrman, A; Yeung, LWY; Spaan, KM; Lange, FT; Nguyen, MA; Plassmann, M; De Wit, CA; Scheurer, M; Awad, R; Benskin, JP
2021 | Environ. Sci.-Process Impacts | 23 (10) (1458-1465)
combustion ion chromatography , organic fluorine , perfluoroalkyl substances , polyfluoroalkyl substances , precursors , samples
The high proportion of unidentified extractable organofluorine (EOF) observed globally in humans and the environment indicates widespread occurrence of unknown per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). However, efforts to standardize or assess the reproducibility of EOF methods are currently lacking. Here we present the first EOF interlaboratory comparison in water and sludge. Three participants (four organizations) analyzed unfortified and PFAS-fortified ultrapure water, two unfortified groundwater samples, unfortified wastewater treatment plant effluent and sludge, and an unfortified groundwater extract. Participants adopted common sample handling strategies and target lists for EOF mass balance but used in-house combustion ion-chromatography (CIC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. EOF accuracy ranged from 85-101% and 76-109% for the 60 and 334 ng L-1 fluorine (F) - fortified water samples, respectively, with between-laboratory variation of 9-19%, and within-laboratory variation of 3-27%. In unfortified sludge and aqueous samples, between-laboratory variation ranged from 21-37%. The contribution from sum concentrations of 16 individual PFAS ( n-ary sumation PFAS-16) to EOF ranged from 2.2-60% but extended analysis showed that other targets were prevalent, in particular ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (e.g. trifluoroacetic acid) in aqueous samples and perfluoroalkyl acid-precursors (e.g. polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters) in sludge. The EOF-CIC method demonstrated promising accuracy, robustness and reporting limits but poor extraction efficiency was observed for some targets (e.g. trifluoroacetic acid).

The importance of Aitken mode aerosol particles for cloud sustenance in the summertime high Arctic – a simulation study supported by observational data

Bulatovic, I; Igel, AL; Leck, C; Heintzenberg, J; Riipinen, I; Ekman, AML
2021 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 21 (5) (3871-3897)
The potential importance of Aitken mode particles (diameters similar to 25-80 nm) for stratiform mixed-phase clouds in the summertime high Arctic (> 80 degrees N) has been investigated using two large-eddy simulation models. We find that, in both models, Aitken mode particles significantly affect the simulated microphysical and radiative properties of the cloud and can help sustain the cloud when accumulation mode concentrations are low (< 10-20 cm(-3)), even when the particles have low hygroscopicity (hygroscopicity parameter - kappa = 0.1). However, the influence of the Aitken mode decreases if the overall liquid water content of the cloud is low, either due to a higher ice fraction or due to low radiative cooling rates. An analysis of the simulated supersaturation (ss) statistics shows that the ss frequently reaches 0.5 % and sometimes even exceeds 1 %, which confirms that Aitken mode particles can be activated. The modelling results are in qualitative agreement with observations of the Hoppel minimum obtained from four different expeditions in the high Arctic. Our findings highlight the importance of better understanding Aitken mode particle formation, chemical properties and emissions, particularly in clean environments such as the high Arctic.

Relationship between cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and aerosol optical depth in the Arctic region

Ahn, SH; Yoon, YJ; Choi, TJ; Lee, JY; Kim, YP; Lee, BY; Ritter, C; Aas, W; Krejci, R; Strom, J; Tunved, P; Jung, CH
2021 | Atmos Environ | 267
aerosol optical depth , arctic region , black carbon , brown carbon , ccn-aod relationship , cloud condensation nuclei , hygroscopic properties , light-absorption , mixing state , modis , ny-alesund , profiles , satellite , size distribution
To determine the direct and indirect effects of aerosols on climate, it is important to know the spatial and temporal variations in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Although many types of CCN measurements are available, extensive CCN measurements are challenging because of the complexity and high operating cost, especially in remote areas. As aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be readily observed by remote sensing, many attempts have been made to estimate CCN concentrations from AOD. In this study, the CCN-AOD relationship is parameterized based on CCN ground measurements from the Zeppelin Observatory (78.91 degrees N, 11.89 degrees E, 474 m asl) in the Arctic region. The AOD measurements were obtained from the Ny-Alesund site (78.923 degrees N, 11.928 degrees E) and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 reanalysis. Our results show a CCN-AOD correlation with a coefficient of determination R-2 of 0.59. Three additional estimation models for CCN were presented based on the following data: (i) in situ aerosol chemical composition, (ii) in situ aerosol optical properties, and (iii) chemical composition of AOD obtained from reanalysis data. The results from the model using in situ aerosol optical properties reproduced the observed CCN concentration most efficiently, suggesting that the contribution of BC to CCN concentration should be considered along with that of sulfate.

Microbiota-Dependent and -Independent Production of L-Dopa in the Gut of Daphnia magna

El-Shehawy, R; Luecke-Johansson, S; Ribbenstedt, A; Gorokhove, E
2021 | mSystems | 6 (6)
crustacea , daphnia , daphnia-magna , decarboxylase , dopamine synthesis , drosophila , dynamics , gene , growth , gut microbiome , host-microbiome interactions , interkingdom communication , l-dopa , molt cycle and development , nervous-system , peripheral pathways for neurotransmitters , pulex
Host-microbiome interactions are essential for the physiological and ec-ological performance of the host, yet these interactions are challenging to identify. Neurotransmitters are commonly implicated in these interactions, but we know very little about the mechanisms of their involvement, especially in invertebrates. Here, we report a peripheral catecholamine (CA) pathway involving the gut microbiome of the model species Daphnia magna. We demonstrate the following: (i) tyrosine hydroxylase and Dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) decarboxylase enzymes are present in the gut wall; (ii) Dopa decarboxylase gene is expressed in the gut by the host, and its expression follows the molt cycle peaking after ecdysis; (iii) biologically active L-Dopa, but not dopamine, is present in the gut lumen; (iv) gut bacteria produce L-Dopa in a concentration-dependent manner when provided L-tyrosine as a substrate. Impinging on gut bacteria involvement in host physiology and ecologically relevant traits, we suggest L-Dopa as a communication agent in the host-microbiome interactions in daphnids and, possibly, other crustaceans. IMPORTANCE Neurotransmitters are commonly implicated in host-microbiome communication, yet the molecular mechanisms of this communication remain largely elusive. We present novel evidence linking the gut microbiome to host development and growth via neurotransmitter L-Dopa in Daphnia, the established model species in ecology and evolution. We found that both Daphnia and its gut microbiome con-tribute to the synthesis of the L-Dopa in the gut. We also identified a peripheral pathway in the gut wall, with a molt stage-dependent dopamine synthesis, linking the gut microbiome to the daphnid development and growth. These findings suggest a central role of L-Dopa in the bidirectional communication between the animal host and its gut bacteria and translating into the ecologically important host traits suitable for subsequent testing of causality by experimental studies.


Stevens, B; Bony, S; Farrell, D; Ament, F; Blyth, A; Fairall, C; Karstensen, J; Quinn, PK; Speich, S; Acquistapace, C; Aemisegger, F; Albright, AL; Bellenger, H; Bodenschatz, E; Caesar, KA; Chewitt-Lucas, R; de Boer, G; Delanoe, J; Denby, L; Ewald, F; Fildier, B; Forde, M; George, G; Gross, S; Hagen, M; Hausold, A; Heywood, KJ; Hirsch, L; Jacob, M; Jansen, F; Kinne, S; Klocke, D; Kolling, T; Konow, H; Lothon, M; Mohr, W; Naumann, AK; Nuijens, L; Olivier, L; Pincus, R; Pohlker, M; Reverdin, G; Roberts, G; Schnitt, S; Schulz, H; Siebesma, AP; Stephan, CC; Sullivan, P; Touze-Peiffer, L; Vial, J; Vogel, R; Zuidema, P; Alexander, N; Alves, L; Arixi, S; Asmath, H; Bagheri, G; Baier, K; Bailey, A; Baranowski, D; Baron, A; Barrau, S; Barrett, PA; Batier, F; Behrendt, A; Bendinger, A; Beucher, F; Bigorre, S; Blades, E; Blossey, P; Bock, O; Boing, S; Bosser, P; Bourras, D; Bouruet-Aubertot, P; Bower, K; Branellec, P; Branger, H; Brennek, M; Brewer, A; Brilouet, PE; Brugmann, B; Buehler, SA; Burke, E; Burton, R; Calmer, R; Canonici, JC; Carton, X; Cato, G; Charles, JA; Chazette, P; Chen, YX; Chilinski, MT; Choularton, T; Chuang, P; Clarke, S; Coe, H; Cornet, C; Coutris, P; Couvreux, F; Crewell, S; Cronin, T; Cui, ZQ; Cuypers, Y; Daley, A; Damerell, GM; Dauhut, T; Deneke, H; Desbios, JP; Dorner, S; Donner, S; Douet, V; Drushka, K; Dutsch, M; Ehrlich, A; Emanuel, K; Emmanouilidis, A; Etienne, JC; Etienne-Leblanc, S; Faure, G; Feingold, G; Ferrero, L; Fix, A; Flamant, C; Flatau, PJ; Foltz, GR; Forster, L; Furtuna, I; Gadian, A; Galewsky, J; Gallagher, M; Gallimore, P; Gaston, C; Gentemann, C; Geyskens, N; Giez, A; Gollop, J; Gouirand, I; Gourbeyre, C; de Graaf, D; de Groot, GE; Grosz, R; Guttler, J; Gutleben, M; Hall, K; Harris, G; Helfer, KC; Henze, D; Herbert, C; Holanda, B; Ibanez-Landeta, A; Intrieri, J; Iyer, S; Julien, F; Kalesse, H; Kazil, J; Kellman, A; Kidane, AT; Kirchner, U; Klingebiel, M; Korner, M; Kremper, LA; Kretzschmar, J; Kruger, O; Kumala, W; Kurz, A; L'Hegaret, P; Labaste, M; Lachlan-Cope, T; Laing, A; Landschutzer, P; Lang, T; Lange, D; Lange, I; Laplace, C; Lavik, G; Laxenaire, R; Le Bihan, C; Leandro, M; Lefevre, N; Lena, M; Lenschow, D; Li, Q; Lloyd, G; Los, S; Losi, N; Lovell, O; Luneau, C; Makuch, P; Malinowski, S; Manta, G; Marinou, E; Marsden, N; Masson, S; Maury, N; Mayer, B; Mayers-Als, M; Mazel, C; McGeary, W; McWilliams, JC; Mech, M; Mehlmann, M; Meroni, AN; Mieslinger, T; Minikin, A; Minnett, P; Moller, G; Avalos, YM; Muller, C; Musat, I; Napoli, A; Neuberger, A; Noisel, C; Noone, D; Nordsiek, F; Nowak, JL; Oswald, L; Parker, DJ; Peck, C; Person, R; Philippi, M; Plueddemann, A; Pohlker, C; Portge, V; Poschl, U; Pologne, L; Posyniak, M; Prange, M; Melendez, EQ; Radtke, J; Ramage, K; Reimann, J; Renault, L; Reus, K; Reyes, A; Ribbe, J; Ringel, M; Ritschel, M; Rocha, CB; Rochetin, N; Rottenbacher, J; Rollo, C; Royer, H; Sadoulet, P; Saffin, L; Sandiford, S; Sandu, I; Schafer, M; Schemann, V; Schirmacher, I; Schlenczek, O; Schmidt, J; Schroder, M; Schwarzenboeck, A; Sealy, A; Senff, CJ; Serikov, I; Shohan, S; Siddle, E; Smirnov, A; Spath, F; Spooner, B; Stolla, MK; Szkolka, W; de Szoeke, SP; Tarot, S; Tetoni, E; Thompson, E; Thomson, J; Tomassini, L; Totems, J; Ubele, AA; Villiger, L; von Arx, J; Wagner, T; Walther, A; Webber, B; Wendisch, M; Whitehall, S; Wiltshire, A; Wing, AA; Wirth, M; Wiskandt, J; Wolf, K; Worbes, L; Wright, E; Wulfmeyer, V; Young, S; Zhang, CD; Zhang, DX; Ziemen, F; Zinner, T; Zoger, M
2021 | Earth Syst. Sci. Data | 13 (8) (4067-4119)
boundary layer , large-eddy simulations , mesoscale , model , ocean , rain , sea-surface temperature , shallow cumulus , spectra , trade-wind clouds
The science guiding the EUREC4A campaign and its measurements is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic - eastward and southeastward of Barbados. Through its ability to characterize processes operating across a wide range of scales, EUREC4A marked a turning point in our ability to observationally study factors influencing clouds in the trades, how they will respond to warming, and their link to other components of the earth system, such as upper-ocean processes or the life cycle of particulate matter. This characterization was made possible by thousands (2500) of sondes distributed to measure circulations on meso- (200 km) and larger (500 km) scales, roughly 400 h of flight time by four heavily instrumented research aircraft; four global-class research vessels; an advanced groundbased cloud observatory; scores of autonomous observing platforms operating in the upper ocean (nearly 10 000 profiles), lower atmosphere (continuous profiling), and along the air-sea interface; a network of water stable isotopologue measurements; targeted tasking of satellite remote sensing; and modeling with a new generation of weather and climate models. In addition to providing an outline of the novel measurements and their composition into a unified and coordinated campaign, the six distinct scientific facets that EUREC4A explored - from North Brazil Current rings to turbulence-induced clustering of cloud droplets and its influence on warm-rain formation - are presented along with an overview of EUREC4A's outreach activities, environmental impact, and guidelines for scientific practice. Track data for all platforms are standardized and accessible at https://doi.org/10.25326/165 (Stevens, 2021), and a film documenting the campaign is provided as a video supplement.

Soil-air partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds in the Lesser Himalaya region: Influence of soil organic matter, atmospheric transport processes and secondary emissions

Riaz, R; Malik, RN; de Wit, CA
2021 | Environ. Pollut. | 291
black carbon , central tibetan plateau , exchange , land-use , long range atmospheric transport , organochlorine pesticides ocps , pollutants pops , polybrominated diphenyl ethers , polychlorinated biphenyls , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons , re-volatilization , soil organic matter , soil-air exchange , soil-air partition , spatial variability , spatial-distribution
After decades of imposed regulations about reducing the primary emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), these pollutants are still present in the environment. Soils are important repositories of such persistent semivolatile organic contaminants (SVOCs), and it is assumed that SVOCs sequestered in these reservoirs are being re-mobilized due to anthropogenic influence. In this study, concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soil and air, their fugacities, fluxes and the soil-air partition coefficient (KSA) were determined for three different land cover types (glacial, remote/mountainous and urban) of the Lesser Himalayan Region (LHR). The concentrations of OCPs, PCBs and PBDEs in soils and air ranged between 0.01 and 2.8, 0.81-4.8, 0.089-0.75 ng g(-1); 0.2-106, 0.027-182, and 0.011-7.26 pg m- 3, respectively. The levels of SVOCs in the soil were correlated with soil organic matter (SOM) indicating that SOM is a substrate for the organic pollutants in soils. The Clausius-Clapeyron plots between ln P and inverse of temperature (1000/T) suggested that long range atmospheric transport was the major input source of PBDEs and higher chlorinated PCBs over the LHR. The uneven and wide distribution of local sources in LHR and up-slope enrichment of SVOCs explained the spatial variability and altitudinal patterns. The soils near mountain and urban lakes act as local sinks of SVOCs such as beta-HCH, ppGREEK TONOS-DDT, CB-28,-118,-153, BDE-47,-99, and-154, with soil-air exchange fluxes tending more toward deposition. However, the soils near glacial lakes acted as local sources of more volatile congeners of alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, op'-DDT, pp'-DDE and lower to medium chlorinated PCBs such as CB-18,-28,-53,-42 and BDE-47,-99, with soil-air exchange tending more toward volatilization flux.

Nontarget analysis reveals gut microbiome-dependent differences in the fecal PCB metabolite profiles of germ-free and conventional mice

Li, XS; Liu, YN; Martin, JW; Cui, JY; Lehmler, HJ
2021 | Environ. Pollut. | 268
2,4',5-trichlorobiphenyl , chlorinated biphenyl , drug-processing genes , enterotype , excretion , feces , glucuronidation , hydroxylated polychlorinated-biphenyls , identification , mechanisms , mixture , mus musculus , nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry , pcb metabolites , rats
Mammalian polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolism has not been systematically explored with nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry (Nt-HRMS). Here we investigated the importance of the gut microbiome in PCB biotransformation by Nt-HRMS analysis of feces from conventional (CV) and germ-free (GF) adult female mice exposed to a single oral dose of an environmental PCB mixture (6 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg in corn oil). Feces were collected for 24 h after PCB administration, PCB metabolites were extracted from pooled samples, and the extracts were analyzed by Nt-HRMS. Twelve classes of PCB metabolites were detected in the feces from CV mice, including PCB sulfates, hydroxylated PCB sulfates (OH-PCB sulfates), PCB sulfonates, and hydroxylated methyl sulfone PCBs (OH-MeSO2-PCBs) reported previously. We also observed eight additional PCB metabolite classes that were tentatively identified as hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), dihydroxylated PCBs (DiOH-PCBs), monomethoxylated dihydroxylated PCBs (MeO-OH-PCBs), methoxylated PCB sulfates (MeO-PCB sulfates), mono-to tetra-hydroxylated PCB quinones ((OH)(x)-quinones, x = 1-4), and hydroxylated polychlorinated benzofurans (OH-PCDF). Most metabolite classes were also detected in the feces from GF mice, except for MeO-OH-PCBs, OH-MeSO2-PCBs, and OH-PCDFs. Semi-quantitative analyses demonstrate that relative PCB metabolite levels increased with increasing dose and were higher in CV than GF mice, except for PCB sulfates and MeO-PCB sulfates, which were higher in GF mice. These findings demonstrate that the gut microbiome plays a direct or indirect role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of PCB metabolites, which in turn may affect toxic outcomes following PCB exposure. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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