Eight years of sub-micrometre organic aerosol composition data from the boreal forest characterized using a machine-learning approach

Heikkinen, L; Aijala, M; Daellenbach, KR; Chen, G; Garmash, O; Aliaga, D; Graeffe, F; Raty, M; Luoma, K; Aalto, P; Kulmala, M; Petaja, T; Worsnop, D; Ehn, M
2021 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 21 (13) (10081-10109)
chemistry , components , data sets , emissions , model , pollution , positive matrix factorization , secondary , source apportionment , uncertainty
The Station for Measuring Ecosystem-Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR) II, located within the boreal forest of Finland, is a unique station in the world due to the wide range of long-term measurements tracking the Earth-atmosphere interface. In this study, we characterize the composition of organic aerosol (OA) at SMEAR II by quantifying its driving constituents. We utilize a multi-year data set of OA mass spectra measured in situ with an Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) at the station. To our knowledge, this mass spectral time series is the longest of its kind published to date. Similarly to other previously reported efforts in OA source apportionment from multi-seasonal or multi-annual data sets, we approached the OA characterization challenge through positive matrix factorization (PMF) using a rolling window approach. However, the existing methods for extracting minor OA components were found to be insufficient for our rather remote site. To overcome this issue, we tested a new statistical analysis framework. This included unsupervised feature extraction and classification stages to explore a large number of unconstrained PMF runs conducted on the measured OA mass spectra. Anchored by these results, we finally constructed a relaxed chemical mass balance (CMB) run that resolved different OA components from our observations. The presented combination of statistical tools provided a data-driven analysis methodology, which in our case achieved robust solutions with minimal subjectivity. Following the extensive statistical analyses, we were able to divide the 2012-2019 SMEAR II OA data (mass concentration interquartile range (IQR): 0.7, 1.3, and 2.6 mu gm(-3)) into three sub-categories - low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA), semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA), and primary OA (POA) - proving that the tested methodology was able to provide results consistent with literature. LV-OOA was the most dominant OA type (organic mass fraction IQR: 49 %, 62 %, and 73 %). The seasonal cycle of LV-OOA was bimodal, with peaks both in summer and in February. We associated the wintertime LV-OOA with anthropogenic sources and assumed biogenic influence in LV-OOA formation in summer. Through a brief trajectory analysis, we estimated summertime natural LV-OOA formation of tens of ngm 3 h 1 over the boreal forest. SV-OOA was the second highest contributor to OA mass (organic mass fraction IQR: 19 %, 31 %, and 43 %). Due to SV-OOA's clear peak in summer, we estimate biogenic processes as the main drivers in its formation. Unlike for LV-OOA, the highest SV-OOA concentrations were detected in stable summertime nocturnal surface layers. Two nearby sawmills also played a significant role in SV-OOA production as also exemplified by previous studies at SMEAR II. POA, taken as a mix of two different OA types reported previously, hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA) and biomass burning OA (BBOA), made up a minimal OA mass fraction (IQR: 2 %, 6 %, and 13 %). Notably, the quantification of POA at SMEAR II using ACSM data was not possible following existing rolling PMF methodologies. Both POA organic mass fraction and mass concentration peaked in winter. Its appearance at SMEAR II was linked to strong southerly winds. Similar wind direction and speed dependence was not observed among other OA types. The high wind speeds probably enabled the POA transport to SMEAR II from faraway sources in a relatively fresh state. In the event of slower wind speeds, POA likely evaporated and/or aged into oxidized organic aerosol before detection. The POA organic mass fraction was significantly lower than reported by aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements 2 to 4 years prior to the ACSM measurements. While the co-located long-term measurements of black carbon supported the hypothesis of higher POA loadings prior to year 2012, it is also possible that short-term (POA) pollution plumes were averaged out due to the slow time resolution of the ACSM combined with the further 3 h data averaging needed to ensure good signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Despite the length of the ACSM data set, we did not focus on quantifying long-term trends of POA (nor other components) due to the high sensitivity of OA composition to meteorological anomalies, the occurrence of which is likely not normally distributed over the 8-year measurement period. Due to the unique and realistic seasonal cycles and meteorology dependences of the independent OA subtypes complemented by the reasonably low degree of unexplained OA variability, we believe that the presented data analysis approach performs well. Therefore, we hope that these results encourage also other researchers possessing several-yearlong time series of similar data to tackle the data analysis via similar semi- or unsupervised machine-learning approaches. This way the presented method could be further optimized and its usability explored and evaluated also in other environments.

Large seasonal and interannual variations of biogenic sulfur compounds in the Arctic atmosphere (Svalbard; 78.9 degrees N, 11.9 degrees E)

Jang, S; Park, KT; Lee, K; Yoon, YJ; Kim, K; Chung, HY; Jang, E; Becagli, S; Lee, BY; Traversi, R; Eleftheriadis, K; Krejci, R; Hermansen, O
2021 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 21 (12) (9761-9777)
aerosol black carbon , boundary layer , dimethyl sulfide , dms , methane sulfonic acid , methanesulfonic-acid , msa , ocean , particle formation , sea-salt-sulfate
Seasonal to interannual variations in the concentrations of sulfur aerosols (< 2.5 mu m in diameter; non seasalt sulfate: NSS-SO42-; anthropogenic sulfate: Anth-SO42-; biogenic sulfate: Bio-SO42-; methanesulfonic acid: MSA) in the Arctic atmosphere were investigated using measurements of the chemical composition of aerosols collected at Ny-angstrom lesund, Svalbard (78.9 degrees N, 11.9 degrees E) from 2015 to 2019. In all measurement years the concentration of NSS-SO42- was highest during the pre-bloom period and rapidly decreased towards summer. During the pre-bloom period we found a strong correlation between NSS-SO42- (sum of Anth-SO42- and Bio-SO42-) and Anth-SO42- . This was because more than 50 % of the NSS-SO(4)(2-)measured during this period was Anth-SO42- , which originated in northern Europe and was subsequently transported to the Arctic in Arctic haze. Unexpected increases in the concentration of Bio-SO42- aerosols (an oxidation product of dimethylsulfide: DMS) were occasionally found during the pre-bloom period. These probably originated in regions to the south (the North Atlantic Ocean and the Norwegian Sea) rather than in ocean areas in the proximity of Ny-angstrom lesund. Another oxidation product of DMS is MSA, and the ratio of MSA to Bio-SO42- is extensively used to estimate the total amount of DMS-derived aerosol particles in remote marine environments. The concentration of MSA during the pre-bloom period remained low, primarily because of the greater loss of MSA relative to Bio-SO42- and the suppression of condensation of gaseous MSA onto particles already present in air masses being transported northwards from distant ocean source regions (existing particles). In addition, the low light intensity during the pre-bloom period resulted in a low concentration of photo-chemically activated oxidant species including OH radicals and BrO; these conditions favored the oxidation pathway of DMS to Bio-SO42- rather than to MSA, which acted to lower the MSA concentration at Ny-angstrom lesund. The concentration of MSA peaked in May or June and was positively correlated with phytoplankton biomass in the Greenland and Barents seas around Svalbard. As a result, the mean ratio of MSA to the DMS-derived aerosols was low (0.09 +/- 0.07) in the pre-bloom period but high (0.32 +/- 0.15) in the bloom and post-bloom periods. There was large interannual variability in the ratio of MSA to Bio-SO42- (i.e., 0.24 +/- 0.11 in 2017, 0.40 +/- 0.14 in 2018, and 0.36 +/- 0.14 in 2019) during the bloom and post-bloom periods. This was probably associated with changes in the chemical properties of existing particles, biological activities surrounding the observation site, and air mass transport patterns. Our results indicate that MSA is not a conservative tracer for predicting DMS-derived particles, and the contribution of MSA to the growth of newly formed particles may be much larger during the bloom and post-bloom periods than during the pre-bloom period.

Negligible Greenhouse Gas Release from Sediments in Oyster Habitats

Ray, NE; Fulweiler, RW
2021 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 55 (20) (14225-14233)
aquaculture , carbon-dioxide , climate , denitrification , greenhouse gas , impact , intertidal sediments , methane , mineralization , nitrous-oxide , nitrous-oxide production , oyster , seasonal variation , shells , system , water
After centuries of decline, oyster populations are now on the rise in coastal systems globally following aquaculture development and restoration efforts. Oysters regulate the biogeochemistry of coastal systems in part by promoting sediment nutrient recycling and removing excess nitrogen via denitrification. Less clear is how oysters alter sediment greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes.an important consideration as oyster populations grow. Here, we show that sediments in oyster habitats produce carbon dioxide (CO2), with highest rates in spring (2396.91 +/- 381.98 mu mol CO2 m(-2) h(-1)) following deposition of seasonal diatom blooms and in summer (2795.20 +/- 307.55 mu mol CO2 m(-2) h(-1)) when temperatures are high. Sediments in oyster habitats also consistently released methane to the water column (725.94 +/- 150.34 nmol CH4 m(-2) h(-1)) with no seasonal pattern. Generally, oyster habitat sediments were a sink for nitrous oxide (N2O; -36.11 +/- 7.24 nmol N2O m(-2) h(-1)), only occasionally releasing N2O in spring. N2O release corresponded to high organic matter and dissolved nitrogen availability, suggesting denitrification as the production pathway. Despite potential CO2 production increases under aquaculture in some locations, we conclude that in temperate regions oysters have an overall negligible impact on sediment GHG cycling.

Adult female European perch (Perca fluviatilis) from the Baltic Sea show no evidence of thiamine deficiency

Gustafsson, J; Strom, K; Arvstrand, L; Forlin, L; Asplund, L; Balk, L
2021 | J. Sea Res. | 174
apoenzyme , fish , fluviatilis , health , polybrominated diphenyl ethers , seasonal variation , transketolase , vitamin b-1
Deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1) has been demonstrated in several species in the northern hemisphere and is suggested as a cause for declining populations. European perch from the Baltic Sea show negative temporal trends for several health biomarkers and poor recruitment of unknown cause. In this study, thiamine status of perch liver from the Baltic Sea was studied with emphasis on seasonal variation. During spring the thiamine concentration increased, reached a higher level during the summer and then decreased again during autumn. Despite this variation the thiamine concentration was always sufficient in the perch liver. These results indicate that direct thiamine deficiency is an unlikely explanation for the health effects observed in adult female perch from the Baltic Sea.

Risk-based prioritization of suspects detected in riverine water using complementary chromatographic techniques

Been, F; Kruve, A; Vughs, D; Meekel, N; Reus, A; Zwartsen, A; Wessel, A; Fischer, A; Ter Laak, T; Brunner, AM
2021 | Water Res. | 204
chemical water quality , chemicals , chromatography , data science , drinking water , hrms , ionization efficiency , non-target screening , organic micropollutants , surface water
Surface waters are widely used as drinking water sources and hence their quality needs to be continuously monitored. However, current routine monitoring programs are not comprehensive as they generally cover only a limited number of known pollutants and emerging contaminants. This study presents a risk-based approach combining suspect and non-target screening (NTS) to help extend the coverage of current monitoring schemes. In particular, the coverage of NTS was widened by combining three complementary separations modes: Reverse phase (RP), Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and Mixed-mode chromatography (MMC). Suspect lists used were compiled from databases of relevant substances of very high concern (e.g., SVHCs) and the concentration of detected suspects was evaluated based on ionization efficiency prediction. Results show that suspect candidates can be prioritized based on their potential risk (i.e., hazard and exposure) by combining ionization efficiency-based concentration estimation, in vitro toxicity data or, if not available, structural alerts and QSAR.based toxicity predictions. The acquired information shows that NTS analyses have the potential to complement target analyses, allowing to update and adapt current monitoring programs, ultimately leading to improved monitoring of drinking water sources.

Nontarget analysis reveals gut microbiome-dependent differences in the fecal PCB metabolite profiles of germ-free and conventional mice

Li, XS; Liu, YN; Martin, JW; Cui, JY; Lehmler, HJ
2021 | Environ. Pollut. | 268
2,4',5-trichlorobiphenyl , chlorinated biphenyl , drug-processing genes , enterotype , excretion , feces , glucuronidation , hydroxylated polychlorinated-biphenyls , identification , mechanisms , mixture , mus musculus , nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry , pcb metabolites , rats
Mammalian polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) metabolism has not been systematically explored with nontarget high-resolution mass spectrometry (Nt-HRMS). Here we investigated the importance of the gut microbiome in PCB biotransformation by Nt-HRMS analysis of feces from conventional (CV) and germ-free (GF) adult female mice exposed to a single oral dose of an environmental PCB mixture (6 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg in corn oil). Feces were collected for 24 h after PCB administration, PCB metabolites were extracted from pooled samples, and the extracts were analyzed by Nt-HRMS. Twelve classes of PCB metabolites were detected in the feces from CV mice, including PCB sulfates, hydroxylated PCB sulfates (OH-PCB sulfates), PCB sulfonates, and hydroxylated methyl sulfone PCBs (OH-MeSO2-PCBs) reported previously. We also observed eight additional PCB metabolite classes that were tentatively identified as hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), dihydroxylated PCBs (DiOH-PCBs), monomethoxylated dihydroxylated PCBs (MeO-OH-PCBs), methoxylated PCB sulfates (MeO-PCB sulfates), mono-to tetra-hydroxylated PCB quinones ((OH)(x)-quinones, x = 1-4), and hydroxylated polychlorinated benzofurans (OH-PCDF). Most metabolite classes were also detected in the feces from GF mice, except for MeO-OH-PCBs, OH-MeSO2-PCBs, and OH-PCDFs. Semi-quantitative analyses demonstrate that relative PCB metabolite levels increased with increasing dose and were higher in CV than GF mice, except for PCB sulfates and MeO-PCB sulfates, which were higher in GF mice. These findings demonstrate that the gut microbiome plays a direct or indirect role in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of PCB metabolites, which in turn may affect toxic outcomes following PCB exposure. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

A call for urgent action to safeguard our planet and our health in line with the helsinki declaration

Halonen, JI; Erhola, M; Furman, E; Haahtela, T; Jousilahti, P; Barouki, R; Bergman, A; Billo, NE; Fuller, R; Haines, A; Kogevinas, M; Kolossa-Gehring, M; Krauze, K; Lanki, T; Vicente, JL; Messerli, P; Nieuwenhuijsen, M; Paloniemi, R; Peters, A; Posch, KH; Timonen, P; Vermeulen, R; Virtanen, SM; Bousquet, J; Anto, JM
2021 | Environ. Res. | 193
air pollution , allergy , chemical pollution , climate change , diseases , environmental biodiversity , exposure , nature , planetary health , urbanization
In 2015, the Rockefeller Foundation-Lancet Commission launched a report introducing a novel approach called Planetary Health and proposed a concept, a strategy and a course of action. To discuss the concept of Planetary Health in the context of Europe, a conference entitled: "Europe That Protects: Safeguarding Our Planet, Safeguarding Our Health" was held in Helsinki in December 2019. The conference participants concluded with a need for action to support Planetary Health during the 2020s. The Helsinki Declaration emphasizes the urgency to act as scientific evidence shows that human activities are causing climate change, biodiversity loss, land degradation, overuse of natural resources and pollution. They threaten the health and safety of human kind. Global, regional, national, local and individual initiatives are called for and multidisciplinary and multiT-sectorial actions and measures are needed. A framework for an action plan is suggested that can be modified for local needs. Accordingly, a shift from fragmented approaches to policy and practice towards systematic actions will promote human health and health of the planet. Systems thinking will feed into conserving nature and biodiversity, and into halting climate change. The Planetary Health paradigm - the health of human civilization and the state of natural systems on which it depends -must become the driver for all policies.

Environmental Sources, Chemistry, Fate, and Transport of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances: State of the Science, Key Knowledge Gaps, and Recommendations Presented at the August 2019 SETAC Focus Topic Meeting

Guelfo, JL; Korzeniowski, S; Mills, MA; Anderson, J; Anderson, RH; Arblaster, JA; Conder, JM; Cousins, IT; Dasu, K; Henry, BJ; Lee, LS; Liu, JX; McKenzie, ER; Willey, J
2021 | Environ. Toxicol. Chem. | 40 (12) (3234-3260)
6/2 fluorotelomer sulfonate , aerobic biotransformation , analytical chemistry , classification , fate and transport , film-forming foams , fire-training areas , firefighting foam deployment , interfacial sorption , perfluorinated alkyl acids , perfluoroalkyl substances , precursor , resolution-mass-spectrometry , risk assessment , waste-water , water treatment-plant
A Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Focused Topic Meeting (FTM) on the environmental management of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) convened during August 2019 in Durham, North Carolina (USA). Experts from around the globe were brought together to critically evaluate new and emerging information on PFAS including chemistry, fate, transport, exposure, and toxicity. After plenary presentations, breakout groups were established and tasked to identify and adjudicate via panel discussions overarching conclusions and relevant data gaps. The present review is one in a series and summarizes outcomes of presentations and breakout discussions related to (1) primary sources and pathways in the environment, (2) sorption and transport in porous media, (3) precursor transformation, (4) practical approaches to the assessment of source zones, (5) standard and novel analytical methods with implications for environmental forensics and site management, and (6) classification and grouping from multiple perspectives. Outcomes illustrate that PFAS classification will continue to be a challenge, and additional pressing needs include increased availability of analytical standards and methods for assessment of PFAS and fate and transport, including precursor transformation. Although the state of the science is sufficient to support a degree of site-specific and flexible risk management, effective source prioritization tools, predictive fate and transport models, and improved and standardized analytical methods are needed to guide broader policies and best management practices. Environ Toxicol Chem 2021;00:1-27. (c) 2021 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC.

Novel 4-Hydroxybenzyl Adducts in Human Hemoglobin: Structures and Mechanisms of Formation

Rajczewski, AT; Ndreu, L; Pujari, SS; Griffin, TJ; Tornqvist, MA; Karlsson, I; Tretyakova, NY
2021 | Chem. Res. Toxicol. | 34 (7) (1769-1781)
cysteine residues , dna adducts , identification , liver , n-terminal valine , p-cresol , protein cross-linking , quinone methide , serum-albumin , strategy
Humans are exposed to large numbers of electrophiles from their diet, the environment, and endogenous physiological processes. Adducts formed at the N-terminal valine of hemoglobin are often used as biomarkers of human exposure to electrophilic compounds. We previously reported the formation of hemoglobin N-terminal valine adducts (added mass, 106.042 Da) in the blood of human smokers and nonsmokers and identified their structure as 4-hydroxybenzyl-Val. In the present work, mass spectrometry-based proteomics was utilized to identify additional sites for 4-hydroxybenzyl adduct formation at internal nucleophilic amino acid side chains within hemoglobin. Hemoglobin isolated from human blood was treated with para-quinone methide (para-QM) followed by global nanoLC-MS/MS and targeted nanoLC-MS/MS to identify amino acid residues containing the 4-hydroxybenzyl modification. Our experiments revealed the formation of 4-hydroxybenzyl adducts at the alpha His20, alpha Tyr24, alpha Tyr42, alpha His45, beta Ser72, beta Thr84, beta Thr87, beta Ser89, beta His92, beta Cys93, beta Cys112, beta Thr123, and beta His143 residues (in addition to N-terminal valine) through characteristic MS/MS spectra. These amino acid side chains had variable reactivity toward para-QM with alpha His45, alpha Tyr42, beta Cys93, beta His92, and beta Ser72 forming the largest numbers of adducts upon exposure to para-QM. Two additional mechanisms for formation of 4-hydroxybenzyl adducts in humans were investigated: exposure to 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (4-HBA) followed by reduction and UV-mediated reactions of hemoglobin with tyrosine. Exposure of hemoglobin to a 5-fold molar excess of 4-HBA followed by reduction with sodium cyanoborohydride produced 4-hydroxybenzyl adducts at several amino acid side chains of which alpha His20, alpha Tyr24, alpha Tyr42, alpha His45, beta Ser44, beta Thr84, and beta His92 were verified in targeted mass spectrometry experiments. Similarly, exposure of human blood to ultraviolet radiation produced 4-hydroxybenzyl adducts at alpha His20, alpha Tyr24, alpha Tyr42, alpha His45, beta Ser44, beta Thr84, and beta Ser89. Overall, our results reveal that 4-hydroxybenzyl adducts form at multiple nucleophilic sites of hemoglobin and that para-QM is the most likely source of these adducts in humans.

A health economic assessment of air pollution effects under climate neutral vehicle fleet scenarios in Stockholm, Sweden

Kriit, HK; Sommar, JN; Forsberg, B; Astrom, S; Svensson, M; Johansson, C
2021 | J. Transp. Health | 22
co2 , cost , costs , disease , electric mobility , electric vehicles , emissions , exhaust , exposure , impacts , model , morbidity , mortality , non-exhaust , pm10 , pm2.5 , pollutants , qaly , quality of life , road dust , wear particles
Introduction: Electric vehicles (EVs) are heavily promoted as beneficial for climate and health. In most studies, it is assumed that EVs contribution to urban air pollution is zero due to no tailpipe emissions, ignoring the contribution of non-exhaust particles (brake, tire and road wear), which are unregulated in EU. This study of Stockholm, Sweden, aims to 1) assess how a future vehicle fleet impacts concentrations of particles of size less than 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) and evaluate the expected health outcomes economically and 2) compare this with CO2 savings. Methods: Source specific dispersion models of exhaust and non-exhaust PM2.5 was used to estimate the population weighted concentrations. Thereafter exposure differences within a business as usual (BAU2035) and a fossil free fuel (FFF2035) scenario were used to assess expected health and economic impacts. The assessment considered both exhaust and non-exhaust emissions, considering the vehicle weight and the proportion of vehicles using studded winter tires. Health economic costs were retrieved from the literature and societal willingness to pay was used to value quality-adjusted life-years lost due to morbidity and mortality. Results: The mean population weighted exhaust PM2.5 concentration decreased 0.012 mu g/m(3) (39%) in FFF2035 as compared to BAU2035. Assuming 50% higher road and tire wear PM2.5 emission because of higher weight among EVs and 30% less brake wear emissions, the estimated decrease in wear particle exposures were 0.152 (22%) and 0.014 mu g/m(3) (1.9%) for 0 and 30% use on studded winter tires, respectively. The resulting health economic costs were estimated to (sic)217M and (sic)32M, respectively. An increase by 0.079 mu g/m(3) (11%) was however estimated for 50% use of studded winter tires, corresponding to an mu 89M increase in health costs. Conclusion: Considering both exhaust and wear generated particles, it is not straight forward that an increase of EVs will decrease the negative health impacts.

Organophosphate Esters in the Canadian Arctic Ocean

Suhring, R; Diamond, ML; Bernstein, S; Adams, JK; Schuster, JK; Fernie, K; Elliott, K; Stern, G; Jantunen, LM
2021 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 55 (1) (304-312)
air , contaminants , flame retardants , pacific , particles , plasticizers , water
Eleven organophosphate esters (OPEs) were detected in surface water and sediment samples from yearly sampling (2013-2018) in the Canadian Arctic. In water samples, Sigma chlorinated-OPEs (Cl-OPEs) concentrations exceeded Sigma non-chlorinated-OPEs (non-Cl-OPEs) with median concentrations of 10 ng L-1 and 1.3 ng L-1, respectively. In sediment samples, Sigma Cl-OPEs and Sigma nonchlorinated-OPEs had median concentrations of 4.5 and 2.5 ng g(-1), respectively. High concentrations of OPEs in samples from the Mackenzie River plume suggest riverine discharge as an OPE source to the Canadian Arctic. The prevalence of OPEs at other sites is consistent with long-range transport. The OPE inventory of the Canadian Arctic Ocean representative of years 2013-2018 was estimated at 450-16,000 tonnes with a median Sigma 11OPE mass of 4100 tonnes with >99% of the OPE inventory estimated to be in the water column. These results highlight the importance of OPEs as water-based Arctic contaminants subject to long-range transport and local sources. The high OPE inventory in the water column of the Canadian Arctic Ocean points to the need for international regulatory mechanisms for persistent and mobile organic contaminants (PMOCs) that are not covered by the risk assessment criteria of the Stockholm Convention.

Introducing the HERA Core Agenda for the European Environment, Climate & Health Research

2021 | Toxicol. Lett. | 350 (S24-S24)

Contact information

Visiting addresses:

Geovetenskapens Hus,
Svante Arrhenius väg 8, Stockholm

Arrheniuslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16, Stockholm (Unit for Toxicological Chemistry)

Mailing address:
Department of Environmental Science
Stockholm University
106 91 Stockholm

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