Land-use and land-cover change carbon emissions between 1901 and 2012 constrained by biomass observations
The use of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) to estimate CO2 emissions from land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) offers a new window to account for spatial and temporal details of emissions and for ecosystem processes affected by LULCC. One drawback of LULCC emissions from DGVMs, however, is lack of observation constraint. Here, we propose a new method of using satellite- and inventory-based biomass observations to constrain historical cumulative LULCC emissions (ELUCc) from an ensemble of nine DGVMs based on emerging relationships between simulated vegetation biomass and ELUCc. This method is applicable on the global and regional scale. The original DGVM estimates of ELUCc range from 94 to 273 PgC during 1901–2012. After constraining by current biomass observations, we derive a best estimate of 155 ± 50 PgC (1σ Gaussian error). The constrained LULCC emissions are higher than prior DGVM values in tropical regions but significantly lower in North America. Our emergent constraint approach independently verifies the median model estimate by biomass observations, giving support to the use of this estimate in carbon budget assessments. The uncertainty in the constrained ELUCc is still relatively large because of the uncertainty in the biomass observations, and thus reduced uncertainty in addition to increased accuracy in biomass observations in the future will help improve the constraint. This constraint method can also be applied to evaluate the impact of land-based mitigation activities.
Certain Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Associated with Aqueous Film Forming Foam Are Widespread in Canadian Surface Waters
The presence of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) commonly associated with aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) at sites without known AFFF contamination is a largely unexplored area, which may reveal widespread environmental contaminants requiring further investigation. Sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening for 23 classes of PFASs, followed by quantitative analysis was used to investigate surface waters from rural, urban, and AFFF-impacted sites in Canada. The PFASs detected included perfluorohexane sulfonamide (FHxSA), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide (FTSAm), fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaines (FTABs), fluorotelomer betaines (FTBs), 6:2 fluorotelomer mercaptoalkylamido sulfonate sulfone (FTSAS-SO2), 6:2 fluorotelomerthiohydroxyl ammonium sulfoxide (FTSHA-SO), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylamine (FTAA) and C3 to C6 perfluoroalkane sulfonamido amphoterics. Detection of FHxSA in all urban and AFFF-impacted sites (0.04–19 ng/L) indicates the widespread presence of rarely considered perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) precursors in Canadian waters. FTABs and FTBs were especially abundant with up to 16–33 ng/L of 6:2 FTAB in urban and AFFF-impacted water suggesting it may have additional applications, while FTBs were only in AFFF-impacted sites (qualitative; ΣFTBs 80 ng/L). The distributions of PFASs moving downstream along the AFFF-impacted Welland River and between water and sediment suggested differences in the persistence of various AFFF components and enhanced sorption of long-chain fluorotelomer betaines. Total organofluorine combustion-ion chromatography (TOF-CIC) revealed that fluorotelomer betaines were a substantial portion of the organofluorine in some waters and 36–99.7% of the total organofluorine was not measured in the targeted analysis.
Total tin and organotin speciation in historic layers of antifouling paint on leisure boat hullsDownload
Thiamine deficiency impairs common eider (Somateria mollissima) reproduction in the field
The Baltic Sea population of the common eider (Somateria mollissima) has declined dramatically during the last two decades. Recently, widespread episodic thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has been demonstrated in feral birds and suggested to contribute significantly to declining populations. Here we show that the decline of the common eider population in the Baltic Sea is paralleled by high mortality of the pulli a few days after hatch, owing to thiamine deficiency and probably also thereby associated abnormal behaviour resulting in high gull predation. An experiment with artificially incubated common eider eggs collected in the field revealed that thiamine treatment of pulli had a therapeutic effect on the thiamine status of the brain and prevented death. The mortality was 53% in untreated specimens, whereas it was only 7% in thiamine treated specimens. Inability to dive was also linked to brain damage typical for thiamine deficiency. Our results demonstrate how thiamine deficiency causes a range of symptoms in the common eider pulli, as well as massive die-offs a few days after hatch, which probably are the major explanation of the recent dramatic population declines.
Speciation and hydrological transport of metals in non-acidic river systems of the Lake Baikal basin: Field data and model predictions
The speciation of metals in aqueous systems is central to understanding their mobility, bioavailability, toxicity and fate. Although several geochemical speciation models exist for metals, the equilibrium conditions assumed by many of them may not prevail in field-scale hydrological systems with flowing water. Furthermore, the dominant processes and/or process rates in non-acidic systems might differ from well-studied acidic systems. We here aim to increase knowledge on geochemical processes controlling speciation and transport of metals under non-acidic river conditions. Specifically, we evaluate the predictive capacity of a speciation model to novel measurements of multiple metals and their partitioning, under high-pH conditions in mining zones within the Lake Baikal basin. The mining zones are potential hotspots for increasing metal loads to downstream river systems. Metals released from such upstream regions may be transported all the way to Lake Baikal, where increasing metal contamination of sediments and biota has been reported. Our results show clear agreement between speciation predictions and field measurements of Fe, V, Pb and Zn, suggesting that the partitioning of these metals mainly was governed by equilibrium geochemistry under the studied conditions. Systematic over-predictions of dissolved Cr, Cu and Mo by the model were observed, which might be corrected by improving the adsorption database for hydroxyapatite because that mineral likely controls the solubility of these metals. Additionally, metal complexation by dissolved organic matter is a key parameter that needs continued monitoring in the Lake Baikal basin because dependable predictions could not be made without considering its variability. Finally, our investigation indicates that further model development is needed for accurate As speciation predictions under non-acidic conditions, which is crucial for improved health risk assessments on this contaminant.