Trends in air pollutants and health impacts in three Swedish cities over the past three decades

Olstrup, H.; Forsberg, B.; Orru, H.; Spanne, M.; Nguyen, H.; Molnár, P.; Johansson, C.
2018 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss.

Air pollution concentrations have been decreasing in many cities in the developed countries. We have estimated time trends and health effects associated with exposure to NOx, NO2, O3, and PM10 in the Swedish cities of Stockholm, Gothenburg, and Malmo from the 1990's to 2015. Trend analyses of concentrations have been performed by using the Mann-Kendall test and the Theil-Sen method. Measured concentrations are from central monitoring stations representing urban background levels, and they are assumed to indicate changes in long-term exposure to the population. However, corrections for population exposure have been performed for NOx, O3, and PM10 in Stockholm, and for NOx in Gothenburg. For NOx and PM10, the concentrations at the central monitoring stations are shown to overestimate exposure when compared to dispersion model calculations of spatially resolved population-weighted exposure concentrations, while the reverse applies to O3. The trends are very different for the pollutants that are studied; NOx and NO2 have been decreasing in all cities, O3 exhibits an increasing trend in all cities, and for PM10, there is a slowly decreasing trend in Stockholm, a slowly increasing trend in Gothenburg, and no significant trend in Malmo. When the trends are divided into weekdays and weekends, the decreasing trends associated with NOx and NO2 are more prominent during weekdays compared to weekends, indicating that local emission reductions from traffic to a large part have contributed to these declining trends.

Health effects in terms of changes in life expectancy are calculated based on the trends in exposure to NOx, NO2, O3, and PM10, and the relative risks associated with exposure to these pollutants. The decreased levels of NOx are estimated to increase the life expectancy by up to 11 months for Stockholm and 12 months for Gothenburg. This corresponds to up to one fifth of the total increase in life expectancy (54–70 months) in the cities during the period 1990–2015. In contrast to NOx and NO2, the changing trends associated with O3 and PM10 have relatively little impact on the change in life expectancy. NOx and NO2 are highly associated with vehicle exhaust emissions, indicating that decreasing road-traffic emissions have had significant impact on the public health in these cities.

Methane production as key to the greenhouse gas budget of thawing permafrost

Knoblauch, C.; Beer, C.; Liebner, S.; Grigoriev, M.N.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.
2018 | Nat. Clim. Change | 8 (4) (309-312)

Assessment of dermal exposure to halogenated flame retardants: Comparison using direct measurements from hand wipes with an indirect estimation from settled dust concentrations.

Tay, J.H.; Sellström, U.; Papadapoulou, E.; Padilla-Sanchez, J.A.; Padilla-Sanchez, J.A.; Haug, L.S.; de Wit, C.A.
2018 | Environ Int | 115 (285-294)

Significance of dark CO2 fixation in arctic soils

Šantrůčková H.; Kotas P.; Bárta J.; Urich T.; Čapek P.; Palmtag J.; Alves R.J.E.; Biasi C.; Diáková K.; Gentsch N.; Gittel A.; Guggenberger G.; Hugelius G.; Lashchinsky N.; Martikainen P.J.; Mikutta R.; Schleper C.; Schnecker J.; Schwab C.; Shibistova O.; Wild B.; Richter A.
2018 | Soil Biol. Biochem. | 119 (11-21)

Efficient removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate from aqueous film-forming foam solution by aeration-foam collection

Meng, P.; Deng, S.; Maimaiti, A.; Wang, B.; Huang, J.; Wang, Y.; Cousins, I.T.; Yu, G.
2018 | Chemosphere | 203 (263-270)

Brominated flame retardants and organophosphate esters in preschool dust and children’s hand wipe samples.

Larsson, K.; de Wit, C.A.; Sellström, U.; Sahlström, L.; Lindh, C.H.; Berglund, M.
2018 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 52 (4878-4888)

Multi-pathway human exposure assessment of phthalate esters and DINCH

Giovanoulis, G.; Bui, T.; Xu, F.; Papadopoulou, E.; Padilla-Sanchez, J.A.; Covaci, A.; Haug, L.S.; Palm Cousins, A.; Magnér, J.; Cousins, I.T.; de Wit, C.A.
2018 | Environ Int | 112 (115-126)

Effects of short-term variability of meteorological variables on soil temperature in permafrost regions

Beer, C.; Porada, P.; Ekici, A.; Brakebusch, M.
2018 | TC | 12 (741-757)

Using Compound-Specific and Bulk Stable Isotope Analysis for Trophic Positioning of Bivalves in Contaminated Baltic Sea Sediments

Ek, C.; Holmstrand, H.; Mustajärvi, L.; Garbaras, A.; Barisevičiu̅te, R.; Šapolaite, J.; Sobek, A.; Gorokhova, E.; Karlson, A.
2018 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 42 (4861-4868)

α-Pinene secondary organic aerosol at low temperature: chemical composition and implications for particle viscosity

Wei Huang; Harald Saathoff; Aki Pajunoja; Xiaoli Shen; Karl-Heinz Naumann; Robert Wagner; Annele Virtanen; Thomas Leisner; Claudia Mohr
2018 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 18 (2883-2898)

Bounding cross-shelf transport time and degradation in Siberian-Arctic land-ocean carbon transfer

Lisa Bröder; Tommaso Tesi; August Andersson; Igor Semiletov; Örjan Gustafsson
2018 | Nat. Commun. | 9

Amino acid production exceeds plant nitrogen demand in Siberian tundra

Wild B.; Alves R.J.E.; Bárta J.; Čapek P.; Gentsch N.; Guggenberger G.; Hugelius G.; Knoltsch A.; Kuhry P.; Lashchinsiy N.; Mikutta R.; Palmtag J.; Prommer J.; Schnecker J.; Shibistova O.; Takriti M.; Urich T.; Richter A.
2018 | Environ. Res. Lett. | 13

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