Quantification and implication of measurement bias of ambient atmospheric BC concentration

Li, CL; Zhang, C; Kang, SC; Gustafsson, O
2021 | Atmos Environ | 249
ambient particle , black carbon , emission inventories , pm2.5
Black carbon (BC) aerosols have severe impacts on climate and health. Most atmospheric BC loadings are now predominantly reported for the PM2.5 size cut-off. Based on 39 published set of ambient BC concentrations from around the world where PM2.5 and PM10 were collected in parallel, we demonstrate that BC in PM2.5 was only around 80% of that in PM10. The implication is that around 20% of BC in the global ambient atmosphere is ignored with the now-legacy PM2.5 sampling approach. Correspondingly, BC of freshly emitted particles from combustion activities is dominantly reported in terms of PM2.5, and thus inflicting a bias in the total BC emission inventories. A consequence is that ambient BC is underpredicted when derived from models based on (PM2.5) emission inventories. This consideration contributes to reconcile existing systematic offset between model predictions and observation-based estimates of climate-relevant effects of anthropogenic BC aerosols. We propose that total ambient BC concentration should be considered rather than the PM2.5 portion to reduce the uncertainties in estimates of BC effects on the climate.

Year-Round Measurements of Dissolved Black Carbon in Coastal Southeast Asia Aerosols: Rethinking Its Atmospheric Deposition in the Ocean

Geng, XF; Zhong, GC; Liu, JW; Sun, Y; Yi, X; Bong, CW; Zakaria, MP; Gustafsson, O; Ouyang, Y; Zhang, G
2021 | J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. | 126 (18)
atmospheric deposition , benzene polycarboxylic acid , biomass burning emissions , black carbon cycle , dissolved black carbon , light-absorption , marine aerosols , matter , particulate , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons , radiocarbon , soluble organic-carbon , source apportionment , transport , variability
Dissolved black carbon (DBC) is an important recalcitrant fraction of marine dissolved organic matter. Riverine discharge is the largest known source of oceanic DBC; however, the significance of atmospheric deposition as a source of oceanic DBC remains poorly understood. In this study, year-round aerosol sampling was carried out at a rural coastal site in Southeast Asia for DBC analysis using the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method. The results revealed the uncertainty of an earlier estimate of the atmospheric deposition flux of DBC to the global ocean (F-DBC), which assumed a linear correlation between DBC and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The correlation between DBC and WSOC depended on the sources of carbonaceous aerosols. The DBC/WSOC ratios were higher for the biomass burning aerosols. DBC was linearly correlated with black carbon (BC) for biomass or fossil fuel combustion aerosols. However, the DBC/BC ratios were higher for biomass burning aerosols (0.41 +/- 0.22), whereas lower for fossil fuel combustion aerosols (0.04 +/- 0.03). F-DBC was revisited based on the relationship between DBC and BC. F-DBC is primarily contributed by biomass burning aerosols and maybe previously underestimated. In this study, the DBC in aerosols had less condensed aromatic structures than the DBC present in the major rivers of the world, as shown by the BPCA compositions. This indicated that oceanic DBC sourced from atmospheric deposition was less likely to be removed by photodegradation and sedimentation, as compared to the DBC sourced from riverine discharge.

Negligible Greenhouse Gas Release from Sediments in Oyster Habitats

Ray, NE; Fulweiler, RW
2021 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 55 (20) (14225-14233)
aquaculture , carbon-dioxide , climate , denitrification , greenhouse gas , impact , intertidal sediments , methane , mineralization , nitrous-oxide , nitrous-oxide production , oyster , seasonal variation , shells , system , water
After centuries of decline, oyster populations are now on the rise in coastal systems globally following aquaculture development and restoration efforts. Oysters regulate the biogeochemistry of coastal systems in part by promoting sediment nutrient recycling and removing excess nitrogen via denitrification. Less clear is how oysters alter sediment greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes.an important consideration as oyster populations grow. Here, we show that sediments in oyster habitats produce carbon dioxide (CO2), with highest rates in spring (2396.91 +/- 381.98 mu mol CO2 m(-2) h(-1)) following deposition of seasonal diatom blooms and in summer (2795.20 +/- 307.55 mu mol CO2 m(-2) h(-1)) when temperatures are high. Sediments in oyster habitats also consistently released methane to the water column (725.94 +/- 150.34 nmol CH4 m(-2) h(-1)) with no seasonal pattern. Generally, oyster habitat sediments were a sink for nitrous oxide (N2O; -36.11 +/- 7.24 nmol N2O m(-2) h(-1)), only occasionally releasing N2O in spring. N2O release corresponded to high organic matter and dissolved nitrogen availability, suggesting denitrification as the production pathway. Despite potential CO2 production increases under aquaculture in some locations, we conclude that in temperate regions oysters have an overall negligible impact on sediment GHG cycling.

Influence of Water Concentrations of Perfluoroalkyl Acids (PFAAs) on Their Size-Resolved Enrichment in Nascent Sea Spray Aerosols

2021 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 55 (14) (9489-9497)
adsorption , anionic surfactants , atmosphere , fate , fractionation , inventories , polyfluoroalkyl substances pfass , sulfonate , to-air transfer , transport
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent organic substances that have been widely detected in the global oceans. Previous laboratory experiments have demonstrated effective enrichment of PFAAs in nascent sea spray aerosols (SSA), suggesting that SSA are an important source of PFAAs to the atmosphere. In the present study, the effects of the water concentration of PFAAs on their size-resolved enrichment in SSA were examined using a sea spray simulation chamber. Aerosolization of the target compounds in almost all sizes of SSA revealed a strong linear relationship with their water concentrations (p < 0.05, r(2) > 0.9). The enrichment factors (EF) of the target compounds showed no correlation with their concentrations in the chamber water, despite the concentrations varying by a factor of 500 (similar to 0.3 to similar to 150 ng L-1). The particle surface-area-to-volume ratio appeared to be a key predictor of the enrichment of perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with >= 7 perfluorinated carbons and perfluoroalkanesulfonic acids (PFSAs) with >= 6 perfluorinated carbons in supermicron particles (p < 0.05, r(2) > 0.8), but not in submicron particles. The different enrichment behaviors of PFAAs in submicron and supermicron particles might be a result of the different production mechanisms of film droplets and jet droplets. The results suggest that the variability in seawater concentrations of PFAAs has little influence on EFs and that modeling studies designed to quantify the source of PFAAs via SSA emissions do not need to consider this factor.

Microalgal growth, nitrogen uptake and storage, and dissolved oxygen production in a polyculture based-open pond fed with municipal wastewater in northern Sweden

Lage, S; Toffolo, A; Gentili, FG
2021 | Chemosphere | 276
algae , biofuels , biomass production , cultivation , culture , dynamics , flue gases , microalgae , nitrogen , nutrient removal , nutrients removal , phosphorous , phosphorus removal , strains , temperature , wastewater
Microalgal-based wastewater treatment and CO2 sequestration from flue gases with subsequent biomass production represent a low-cost, eco-friendly, and effective procedure of removing nutrients and other pollutants from wastewater and assists in the decrease of greenhouse gas emissions. Thus, it supports a circular economy model. This is based on the ability of microalgae to utilise inorganic nutrients, mainly nitrogen and phosphorous, as well as organic and inorganic carbon, for their growth, and simultaneously reduce these substances in the water. However, the production of microalgae biomass under outdoor cultivation is dependent on several abiotic and biotic factors, which impact its profitability and sustainability. Thus, this study's goal was to evaluate the factors affecting the production of microalgae biomass on pilot-scale open raceway ponds under Northern Sweden's summer conditions with the help of a mathematical model. For this purpose, a microalgae consortium and a monoculture of Chlorella vulgaris were used to inoculate outdoor open raceway ponds. In line with the literature, higher biomass concentrations and nutrient removals were observed in ponds inoculated with the microalgae consortium. Our model, based on Droop's concept of macronutrient quotas inside the cell, corresponded well to the experimental data and, thus, can successfully be applied to predict biomass production, nitrogen uptake and storage, and dissolved oxygen production in microalgae consortia. (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Long-Term Exposure to Transportation Noise and Risk of Incident Stroke: A Pooled Study of Nine Scandinavian Cohorts

Roswall, N; Pyko, A; Ogren, M; Oudin, A; Rosengren, A; Lager, A; Poulsen, AH; Eriksson, C; Segersson, D; Rizzuto, D; Andersson, EM; Aasvang, GM; Engstrom, G; Jorgensen, JT; Selander, J; Christensen, JH; Thacher, J; Leander, K; Overvad, K; Eneroth, K; Mattisson, K; Barregard, L; Stockfelt, L; Albin, M; Ketzel, M; Simonsen, MK; Spanne, M; Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Magnusson, PKE; Tuttanen, P; Molnar, P; Ljungman, P; Lanki, T; Lim, YH; Andersen, ZJ; Pershagen, G; Sorensen, M
2021 | Environ. Health Perspect. | 129 (10)
air pollution , cardiovascular-disease , men , mortality , road traffic noise , update
BACKGROUND: Transportation noise is increasingly acknowledged as a cardiovascular risk factor, but the evidence base for an association with stroke is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between transportation noise and stroke incidence in a large Scandinavian population. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled data from nine Scandinavian cohorts (seven Swedish, two Danish), totaling 135,951 participants. We identified residential address history and estimated road, railway, and aircraft noise for all addresses. Information on stroke incidence was acquired through linkage to national patient and mortality registries. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models, including socioeconomic and lifestyle confounders, and air pollution. RESULTS: During follow-up (median = 19.5 y), 11,056 stroke cases were identified. Road traffic noise (Lden) was associated with risk of stroke, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.08] per 10-dB higher 5-y mean time-weighted exposure in analyses adjusted for individual- and area-level socioeconomic covariates. The association was approximately linear and persisted after adjustment for air pollution [particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of <= 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) and NO2]. Stroke was associated with moderate levels of 5-y aircraft noise exposure (40-50 vs. <= 40 dB) (HR = 1.12; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.27), but not with higher exposure (>= 50 dB, HR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.11). Railway noise was not associated with stroke. DISCUSSION: In this pooled study, road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk of stroke. This finding supports road traffic noise as an important cardiovascular risk factor that should be included when estimating the burden of disease due to traffic noise.

Environmental Sources, Chemistry, Fate, and Transport of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances: State of the Science, Key Knowledge Gaps, and Recommendations Presented at the August 2019 SETAC Focus Topic Meeting

Guelfo, JL; Korzeniowski, S; Mills, MA; Anderson, J; Anderson, RH; Arblaster, JA; Conder, JM; Cousins, IT; Dasu, K; Henry, BJ; Lee, LS; Liu, JX; McKenzie, ER; Willey, J
2021 | Environ. Toxicol. Chem. | 40 (12) (3234-3260)
6/2 fluorotelomer sulfonate , aerobic biotransformation , analytical chemistry , classification , fate and transport , film-forming foams , fire-training areas , firefighting foam deployment , interfacial sorption , perfluorinated alkyl acids , perfluoroalkyl substances , precursor , resolution-mass-spectrometry , risk assessment , waste-water , water treatment-plant
A Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Focused Topic Meeting (FTM) on the environmental management of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) convened during August 2019 in Durham, North Carolina (USA). Experts from around the globe were brought together to critically evaluate new and emerging information on PFAS including chemistry, fate, transport, exposure, and toxicity. After plenary presentations, breakout groups were established and tasked to identify and adjudicate via panel discussions overarching conclusions and relevant data gaps. The present review is one in a series and summarizes outcomes of presentations and breakout discussions related to (1) primary sources and pathways in the environment, (2) sorption and transport in porous media, (3) precursor transformation, (4) practical approaches to the assessment of source zones, (5) standard and novel analytical methods with implications for environmental forensics and site management, and (6) classification and grouping from multiple perspectives. Outcomes illustrate that PFAS classification will continue to be a challenge, and additional pressing needs include increased availability of analytical standards and methods for assessment of PFAS and fate and transport, including precursor transformation. Although the state of the science is sufficient to support a degree of site-specific and flexible risk management, effective source prioritization tools, predictive fate and transport models, and improved and standardized analytical methods are needed to guide broader policies and best management practices. Environ Toxicol Chem 2021;00:1-27. (c) 2021 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC.

Can determination of extractable organofluorine (EOF) be standardized? First interlaboratory comparisons of EOF and fluorine mass balance in sludge and water matrices

Karrman, A; Yeung, LWY; Spaan, KM; Lange, FT; Nguyen, MA; Plassmann, M; De Wit, CA; Scheurer, M; Awad, R; Benskin, JP
2021 | Environ. Sci.-Process Impacts | 23 (10) (1458-1465)
combustion ion chromatography , organic fluorine , perfluoroalkyl substances , polyfluoroalkyl substances , precursors , samples
The high proportion of unidentified extractable organofluorine (EOF) observed globally in humans and the environment indicates widespread occurrence of unknown per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). However, efforts to standardize or assess the reproducibility of EOF methods are currently lacking. Here we present the first EOF interlaboratory comparison in water and sludge. Three participants (four organizations) analyzed unfortified and PFAS-fortified ultrapure water, two unfortified groundwater samples, unfortified wastewater treatment plant effluent and sludge, and an unfortified groundwater extract. Participants adopted common sample handling strategies and target lists for EOF mass balance but used in-house combustion ion-chromatography (CIC) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods. EOF accuracy ranged from 85-101% and 76-109% for the 60 and 334 ng L-1 fluorine (F) - fortified water samples, respectively, with between-laboratory variation of 9-19%, and within-laboratory variation of 3-27%. In unfortified sludge and aqueous samples, between-laboratory variation ranged from 21-37%. The contribution from sum concentrations of 16 individual PFAS ( n-ary sumation PFAS-16) to EOF ranged from 2.2-60% but extended analysis showed that other targets were prevalent, in particular ultra-short-chain perfluoroalkyl acids (e.g. trifluoroacetic acid) in aqueous samples and perfluoroalkyl acid-precursors (e.g. polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diesters) in sludge. The EOF-CIC method demonstrated promising accuracy, robustness and reporting limits but poor extraction efficiency was observed for some targets (e.g. trifluoroacetic acid).

The importance of Aitken mode aerosol particles for cloud sustenance in the summertime high Arctic – a simulation study supported by observational data

Bulatovic, I; Igel, AL; Leck, C; Heintzenberg, J; Riipinen, I; Ekman, AML
2021 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 21 (5) (3871-3897)
The potential importance of Aitken mode particles (diameters similar to 25-80 nm) for stratiform mixed-phase clouds in the summertime high Arctic (> 80 degrees N) has been investigated using two large-eddy simulation models. We find that, in both models, Aitken mode particles significantly affect the simulated microphysical and radiative properties of the cloud and can help sustain the cloud when accumulation mode concentrations are low (< 10-20 cm(-3)), even when the particles have low hygroscopicity (hygroscopicity parameter - kappa = 0.1). However, the influence of the Aitken mode decreases if the overall liquid water content of the cloud is low, either due to a higher ice fraction or due to low radiative cooling rates. An analysis of the simulated supersaturation (ss) statistics shows that the ss frequently reaches 0.5 % and sometimes even exceeds 1 %, which confirms that Aitken mode particles can be activated. The modelling results are in qualitative agreement with observations of the Hoppel minimum obtained from four different expeditions in the high Arctic. Our findings highlight the importance of better understanding Aitken mode particle formation, chemical properties and emissions, particularly in clean environments such as the high Arctic.

Relationship between cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and aerosol optical depth in the Arctic region

Ahn, SH; Yoon, YJ; Choi, TJ; Lee, JY; Kim, YP; Lee, BY; Ritter, C; Aas, W; Krejci, R; Strom, J; Tunved, P; Jung, CH
2021 | Atmos Environ | 267
aerosol optical depth , arctic region , black carbon , brown carbon , ccn-aod relationship , cloud condensation nuclei , hygroscopic properties , light-absorption , mixing state , modis , ny-alesund , profiles , satellite , size distribution
To determine the direct and indirect effects of aerosols on climate, it is important to know the spatial and temporal variations in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Although many types of CCN measurements are available, extensive CCN measurements are challenging because of the complexity and high operating cost, especially in remote areas. As aerosol optical depth (AOD) can be readily observed by remote sensing, many attempts have been made to estimate CCN concentrations from AOD. In this study, the CCN-AOD relationship is parameterized based on CCN ground measurements from the Zeppelin Observatory (78.91 degrees N, 11.89 degrees E, 474 m asl) in the Arctic region. The AOD measurements were obtained from the Ny-Alesund site (78.923 degrees N, 11.928 degrees E) and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 reanalysis. Our results show a CCN-AOD correlation with a coefficient of determination R-2 of 0.59. Three additional estimation models for CCN were presented based on the following data: (i) in situ aerosol chemical composition, (ii) in situ aerosol optical properties, and (iii) chemical composition of AOD obtained from reanalysis data. The results from the model using in situ aerosol optical properties reproduced the observed CCN concentration most efficiently, suggesting that the contribution of BC to CCN concentration should be considered along with that of sulfate.

Microbiota-Dependent and -Independent Production of L-Dopa in the Gut of Daphnia magna

El-Shehawy, R; Luecke-Johansson, S; Ribbenstedt, A; Gorokhove, E
2021 | mSystems | 6 (6)
crustacea , daphnia , daphnia-magna , decarboxylase , dopamine synthesis , drosophila , dynamics , gene , growth , gut microbiome , host-microbiome interactions , interkingdom communication , l-dopa , molt cycle and development , nervous-system , peripheral pathways for neurotransmitters , pulex
Host-microbiome interactions are essential for the physiological and ec-ological performance of the host, yet these interactions are challenging to identify. Neurotransmitters are commonly implicated in these interactions, but we know very little about the mechanisms of their involvement, especially in invertebrates. Here, we report a peripheral catecholamine (CA) pathway involving the gut microbiome of the model species Daphnia magna. We demonstrate the following: (i) tyrosine hydroxylase and Dopa (3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine) decarboxylase enzymes are present in the gut wall; (ii) Dopa decarboxylase gene is expressed in the gut by the host, and its expression follows the molt cycle peaking after ecdysis; (iii) biologically active L-Dopa, but not dopamine, is present in the gut lumen; (iv) gut bacteria produce L-Dopa in a concentration-dependent manner when provided L-tyrosine as a substrate. Impinging on gut bacteria involvement in host physiology and ecologically relevant traits, we suggest L-Dopa as a communication agent in the host-microbiome interactions in daphnids and, possibly, other crustaceans. IMPORTANCE Neurotransmitters are commonly implicated in host-microbiome communication, yet the molecular mechanisms of this communication remain largely elusive. We present novel evidence linking the gut microbiome to host development and growth via neurotransmitter L-Dopa in Daphnia, the established model species in ecology and evolution. We found that both Daphnia and its gut microbiome con-tribute to the synthesis of the L-Dopa in the gut. We also identified a peripheral pathway in the gut wall, with a molt stage-dependent dopamine synthesis, linking the gut microbiome to the daphnid development and growth. These findings suggest a central role of L-Dopa in the bidirectional communication between the animal host and its gut bacteria and translating into the ecologically important host traits suitable for subsequent testing of causality by experimental studies.


Stevens, B; Bony, S; Farrell, D; Ament, F; Blyth, A; Fairall, C; Karstensen, J; Quinn, PK; Speich, S; Acquistapace, C; Aemisegger, F; Albright, AL; Bellenger, H; Bodenschatz, E; Caesar, KA; Chewitt-Lucas, R; de Boer, G; Delanoe, J; Denby, L; Ewald, F; Fildier, B; Forde, M; George, G; Gross, S; Hagen, M; Hausold, A; Heywood, KJ; Hirsch, L; Jacob, M; Jansen, F; Kinne, S; Klocke, D; Kolling, T; Konow, H; Lothon, M; Mohr, W; Naumann, AK; Nuijens, L; Olivier, L; Pincus, R; Pohlker, M; Reverdin, G; Roberts, G; Schnitt, S; Schulz, H; Siebesma, AP; Stephan, CC; Sullivan, P; Touze-Peiffer, L; Vial, J; Vogel, R; Zuidema, P; Alexander, N; Alves, L; Arixi, S; Asmath, H; Bagheri, G; Baier, K; Bailey, A; Baranowski, D; Baron, A; Barrau, S; Barrett, PA; Batier, F; Behrendt, A; Bendinger, A; Beucher, F; Bigorre, S; Blades, E; Blossey, P; Bock, O; Boing, S; Bosser, P; Bourras, D; Bouruet-Aubertot, P; Bower, K; Branellec, P; Branger, H; Brennek, M; Brewer, A; Brilouet, PE; Brugmann, B; Buehler, SA; Burke, E; Burton, R; Calmer, R; Canonici, JC; Carton, X; Cato, G; Charles, JA; Chazette, P; Chen, YX; Chilinski, MT; Choularton, T; Chuang, P; Clarke, S; Coe, H; Cornet, C; Coutris, P; Couvreux, F; Crewell, S; Cronin, T; Cui, ZQ; Cuypers, Y; Daley, A; Damerell, GM; Dauhut, T; Deneke, H; Desbios, JP; Dorner, S; Donner, S; Douet, V; Drushka, K; Dutsch, M; Ehrlich, A; Emanuel, K; Emmanouilidis, A; Etienne, JC; Etienne-Leblanc, S; Faure, G; Feingold, G; Ferrero, L; Fix, A; Flamant, C; Flatau, PJ; Foltz, GR; Forster, L; Furtuna, I; Gadian, A; Galewsky, J; Gallagher, M; Gallimore, P; Gaston, C; Gentemann, C; Geyskens, N; Giez, A; Gollop, J; Gouirand, I; Gourbeyre, C; de Graaf, D; de Groot, GE; Grosz, R; Guttler, J; Gutleben, M; Hall, K; Harris, G; Helfer, KC; Henze, D; Herbert, C; Holanda, B; Ibanez-Landeta, A; Intrieri, J; Iyer, S; Julien, F; Kalesse, H; Kazil, J; Kellman, A; Kidane, AT; Kirchner, U; Klingebiel, M; Korner, M; Kremper, LA; Kretzschmar, J; Kruger, O; Kumala, W; Kurz, A; L'Hegaret, P; Labaste, M; Lachlan-Cope, T; Laing, A; Landschutzer, P; Lang, T; Lange, D; Lange, I; Laplace, C; Lavik, G; Laxenaire, R; Le Bihan, C; Leandro, M; Lefevre, N; Lena, M; Lenschow, D; Li, Q; Lloyd, G; Los, S; Losi, N; Lovell, O; Luneau, C; Makuch, P; Malinowski, S; Manta, G; Marinou, E; Marsden, N; Masson, S; Maury, N; Mayer, B; Mayers-Als, M; Mazel, C; McGeary, W; McWilliams, JC; Mech, M; Mehlmann, M; Meroni, AN; Mieslinger, T; Minikin, A; Minnett, P; Moller, G; Avalos, YM; Muller, C; Musat, I; Napoli, A; Neuberger, A; Noisel, C; Noone, D; Nordsiek, F; Nowak, JL; Oswald, L; Parker, DJ; Peck, C; Person, R; Philippi, M; Plueddemann, A; Pohlker, C; Portge, V; Poschl, U; Pologne, L; Posyniak, M; Prange, M; Melendez, EQ; Radtke, J; Ramage, K; Reimann, J; Renault, L; Reus, K; Reyes, A; Ribbe, J; Ringel, M; Ritschel, M; Rocha, CB; Rochetin, N; Rottenbacher, J; Rollo, C; Royer, H; Sadoulet, P; Saffin, L; Sandiford, S; Sandu, I; Schafer, M; Schemann, V; Schirmacher, I; Schlenczek, O; Schmidt, J; Schroder, M; Schwarzenboeck, A; Sealy, A; Senff, CJ; Serikov, I; Shohan, S; Siddle, E; Smirnov, A; Spath, F; Spooner, B; Stolla, MK; Szkolka, W; de Szoeke, SP; Tarot, S; Tetoni, E; Thompson, E; Thomson, J; Tomassini, L; Totems, J; Ubele, AA; Villiger, L; von Arx, J; Wagner, T; Walther, A; Webber, B; Wendisch, M; Whitehall, S; Wiltshire, A; Wing, AA; Wirth, M; Wiskandt, J; Wolf, K; Worbes, L; Wright, E; Wulfmeyer, V; Young, S; Zhang, CD; Zhang, DX; Ziemen, F; Zinner, T; Zoger, M
2021 | Earth Syst. Sci. Data | 13 (8) (4067-4119)
boundary layer , large-eddy simulations , mesoscale , model , ocean , rain , sea-surface temperature , shallow cumulus , spectra , trade-wind clouds
The science guiding the EUREC4A campaign and its measurements is presented. EUREC4A comprised roughly 5 weeks of measurements in the downstream winter trades of the North Atlantic - eastward and southeastward of Barbados. Through its ability to characterize processes operating across a wide range of scales, EUREC4A marked a turning point in our ability to observationally study factors influencing clouds in the trades, how they will respond to warming, and their link to other components of the earth system, such as upper-ocean processes or the life cycle of particulate matter. This characterization was made possible by thousands (2500) of sondes distributed to measure circulations on meso- (200 km) and larger (500 km) scales, roughly 400 h of flight time by four heavily instrumented research aircraft; four global-class research vessels; an advanced groundbased cloud observatory; scores of autonomous observing platforms operating in the upper ocean (nearly 10 000 profiles), lower atmosphere (continuous profiling), and along the air-sea interface; a network of water stable isotopologue measurements; targeted tasking of satellite remote sensing; and modeling with a new generation of weather and climate models. In addition to providing an outline of the novel measurements and their composition into a unified and coordinated campaign, the six distinct scientific facets that EUREC4A explored - from North Brazil Current rings to turbulence-induced clustering of cloud droplets and its influence on warm-rain formation - are presented along with an overview of EUREC4A's outreach activities, environmental impact, and guidelines for scientific practice. Track data for all platforms are standardized and accessible at https://doi.org/10.25326/165 (Stevens, 2021), and a film documenting the campaign is provided as a video supplement.

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Svante Arrhenius väg 8, Stockholm

Arrheniuslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16, Stockholm (Unit for Toxicological Chemistry)

Mailing address:
Department of Environmental Science
Stockholm University
106 91 Stockholm

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