Cloud droplet activation of black carbon particles with organic compounds of varying solubility

Dalirian, M.; Ylisirnio, A.; Buchholz, A.; Schlesinger, D.; Strom, J.; Virtanen, A.; Riipinen, I.
2018 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 18 (12477-12489)

Impacts of future European emission reductions on aerosol particle number concentrations accounting for effects of ammonia, amines and organic species

Julin, J.; Murphy, B. N.; Patoulias, D.; Fountoukis, C.; Olenius, T.; Pandis, S. N.; Riipinen, I.
2018 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 52 (692-700)

Robust metric for quantifying the importance of stochastic effects on nanoparticle growth

Olenius, T.; Pichelstorfer, L.; Stolzenburg, D.; Winkler, P. M.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Riipinen, I.
2018 | Sci Rep | 8

Multicomponent new particle formation from sulfuric acid, ammonia, and biogenic vapors

Lehtipalo, K; Yan, C; Dada, L; Bianchi, F; Xiao, M; Wagner, R; Stolzenburg, D; Ahonen, LR; Amorim, A; Baccarini, A; Bauer, PS; Baumgartner, B; Bergen, A; Bernhammer, AK; Breitenlechner, M; Brilke, S; Buchholz, A; Mazon, SB; Chen, DX; Chen, XM; Dias, A; Dommen, J; Draper, DC; Duplissy, J; Ehn, M; Finkenzeller, H; Fischer, L; Frege, C; Fuchs, C; Garmash, O; Gordon, H; Hakala, J; He, XC; Heikkinen, L; Heinritzi, M; Helm, JC; Hofbauer, V; Hoyle, CR; Jokinen, T; Kangasluoma, J; Kerminen, VM; Kim, C; Kirkby, J; Kontkanen, J; Kurten, A; Lawler, MJ; Mai, HJ; Mathot, S; Mauldin, RL; Molteni, U; Nichman, L; Nie, W; Nieminen, T; Ojdanic, A; Onnela, A; Passananti, M; Petaja, T; Piel, F; Pospisilova, V; Quelever, LLJ; Rissanen, MP; Rose, C; Sarnela, N; Schallhart, S; Schuchmann, S; Sengupta, K; Simon, M; Sipila, M; Tauber, C; Tome, A; Trostl, J; Vaisanen, O; Vogel, AL; Volkamer, R; Wagner, AC; Wang, MY; Weitz, L; Wimmer, D; Ye, PL; Ylisirnio, A; Zha, QZ; Carslaw, KS; Curtius, J; Donahue, NM; Flagan, RC; Hansel, A; Riipinen, I; Virtanen, A; Winkler, PM; Baltensperger, U; Kulmala, M; Worsnop, DR
2018 | Sci. Adv. | 4 (12)
A major fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles, which affect both air quality and climate, form from gaseous precursors in the atmosphere. Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs), formed by oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, are known to participate in particle formation and growth. However, it is not well understood how they interact with atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur oxides (SOx) from fossil fuel combustion, as well as ammonia (NH3) from livestock and fertilizers. Here, we show how NOx suppresses particle formation, while HOMs, sulfuric acid, and NH3 have a synergistic enhancing effect on particle formation. We postulate a novel mechanism, involving HOMs, sulfuric acid, and ammonia, which is able to closely reproduce observations of particle formation and growth in daytime boreal forest and similar environments. The findings elucidate the complex interactions between biogenic and anthropogenic vapors in the atmospheric aerosol system.

Exploring the potential of nano-Köhler theory to describe the growth of atmospheric molecular clusters by organic vapors using cluster kinetics simulations

Kontkanen, J.; Olenius, T.; Kulmala, M.; Riipinen, I.
2018 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 18 (13733-13754)

Simulation of the size-composition distribution of atmospheric nanoparticles over Europe

Patoulias, D; Fountoukis, C; Riipinen, I; Asmi, A; Kulmala, M; Pandis, SN
2018 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 18 (18) (13639-13654)
PMCAMx-UF, a three-dimensional chemical transport model focusing on the simulation of the ultrafine particle size distribution and composition has been extended with the addition of the volatility basis set (VBS) approach for the simulation of organic aerosol (OA). The model was applied in Europe to quantify the effect of secondary semi-volatile organic vapors on particle number concentrations. The model predictions were evaluated against field observations collected during the PEGASOS 2012 campaign. The measurements included both ground and airborne measurements, from stations across Europe and a zeppelin measuring above Po Valley. The ground level concentrations of particles with a diameter larger than 100 nm (N-100) were reproduced with a daily normalized mean error of 40% and a daily normalized mean bias of -20 %. PMCAMx-UF tended to overestimate the concentration of particles with a diameter larger than 10 nm (N-10) with a daily normalized mean bias of 75 %. The model was able to reproduce, within a factor of 2, 85% of the N-10 and 75% of the N-100 zeppelin measurements above ground. The condensation of organics led to an increase (50 %-120 %) in the N-100 concentration mainly in central and northern Europe, while the N-10 concentration decreased by 10 %-30 %. Including the VBS in PMCAMx-UF improved its ability to simulate aerosol number concentration compared to simulations neglecting organic condensation on ultrafine particles.

New particle formation and growth: Creating a new atmospheric phase interface

Olenius, T.; Yli-Juuti, T.; Elm, J.; Kontkanen, J.; Riipinen, I.
2018 | Elsevier Science Publishers | Physical Chemistry of Gas-Liquid Interfaces (315-352) | ISBN: 9780128136416

Cloud droplet activation of black carbon particles coated with organic compounds of varying solubility

Dalirian, M; Ylisirnio, A; Buchholz, A; Schlesinger, D; Strom, J; Virtanen, A; Riipinen, I
2018 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 18 (16) (12477-12489)
Atmospheric black carbon (BC) particles are a concern due to their impact on air quality and climate. Their net climate effect is, however, still uncertain. This uncertainty is partly related to the contribution of coated BC particles to the global cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) budgets. In this study, laboratory measurements were performed to investigate CCN activity of BC (REGAL 400R pigment black) particles, in pure state or coated through evaporating and subsequent condensation of glutaric acid, levoglucosan (both water-soluble organics) or oleic acid (an organic compound with low solubility). A combination of soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) measurements and size distribution measurements with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) showed that the studied BC particles were nearly spherical agglomerates with a fractal dimension of 2.79 and that they were coated evenly by the organic species. The CCN activity of BC particles increased after coating with all the studied compounds and was governed by the fraction of organic material. The CCN activation of the BC particles coated by glutaric acid and levoglucosan were in good agreement with the theoretical calculations using the shell-and-core model, which is based on a combination of the CCN activities of the pure compounds. The oleic acid coating enhanced the CCN activity of the BC particles, even though the pure oleic acid particles were CCN inactive. The surprising effect of oleic acid might be related to the arrangement of the oleic acid molecules on the surface of the BC cores or other surface phenomena facilitating water condensation onto the coated particles. Our results show that present theories have potential for accurately predicting the CCN activity of atmospheric BC coated with organic species, given that the identities and amounts of the coating species are known. Furthermore, our results suggest that even relatively thin soluble coatings (around 2 nm for the compounds studied here) are enough to make the insoluble BC particles CCN active at typical atmospheric supersaturations and thus be efficiently taken up by cloud droplets. This highlights the need for an accurate description of the composition of atmospheric particles containing BC to unravel their net impact on climate.

How much of the global aerosol optical depth is found in the boundary layer and free troposphere?

Bourgeois, Q; Ekman, AML; Renard, JB; Krejci, R; Devasthale, A; Bender, FAM; Riipinen, I; Berthet, G; Tackett, JL
2018 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 18 (10) (7709-7720)
aerocom phase-ii , air pollution , caliop , calipso , cloud , models , ocean , satellite-observations , transport , vertical-distribution
The global aerosol extinction from the CALIOP space lidar was used to compute aerosol optical depth (AOD) over a 9-year period (2007-2015) and partitioned between the boundary layer (BL) and the free troposphere (FT) using BL heights obtained from the ERA-Interim archive. The results show that the vertical distribution of AOD does not follow the diurnal cycle of the BL but remains similar between day and night highlighting the presence of a residual layer during night. The BL and FT contribute 69 and 31 %, respectively, to the global tropospheric AOD during daytime in line with observations obtained in Aire sur l'Adour (France) using the Light Optical Aerosol Counter (LOAC) instrument. The FT AOD contribution is larger in the tropics than at mid-latitudes which indicates that convective transport largely controls the vertical profile of aerosols. Over oceans, the FT AOD contribution is mainly governed by long-range transport of aerosols from emission sources located within neighboring continents. According to the CALIOP aerosol classification, dust and smoke particles are the main aerosol types transported into the FT. Overall, the study shows that the fraction of AOD in the FT - and thus potentially located above low-level clouds - is substantial and deserves more attention when evaluating the radiative effect of aerosols in climate models. More generally, the results have implications for processes determining the overall budgets, sources, sinks and transport of aerosol particles and their description in atmospheric models.

Impacts of Future European Emission Reductions on Aerosol Particle Number Concentrations Accounting for Effects of Ammonia, Amines, and Organic Species

Julin, J; Murphy, BN; Patoulias, D; Fountoukis, C; Olenius, T; Pandis, SN; Riipinen, I
2018 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 52 (2) (692-700)
Although they are currently unregulated, atmospheric ultrafine particles (<100 nm) pose health risks because of, e.g., their capability to penetrate deep into the respiratory system. Ultrafine particles, often minor contributors to atmospheric particulate mass, typically dominate aerosol particle number concentrations. We simulated the response of particle number concentrations over Europe to recent estimates of future emission reductions of aerosol particles and their precursors. We used the chemical transport model PMCAMx-UF, with novel updates including state-of-the-art descriptions of ammonia and dimethylamine new particle formation (NPF) pathways and the condensation of organic compounds onto particles. These processes had notable impacts on atmospheric particle number concentrations. All three emission scenarios (current legislation, optimized emissions, and maximum technically feasible reductions) resulted in substantial (10-50%) decreases in median particle number concentrations over Europe. Consistent reductions were predicted in Central Europe, while Northern Europe exhibited smaller reductions or even increased concentrations. Motivated by the improved NPF descriptions for ammonia and methylamines, we placed special focus on the potential to improve air quality by reducing agricultural emissions,, which are a major source of these species. Agricultural emission controls showed promise in reducing ultrafine particle number concentrations, although the change is nonlinear with particle size.

Cloud droplet activation of black carbon particles coated with organic compounds of varying solubility

Dalirian, M; Ylisirnio, A; Buchholz, A; Schlesinger, D; Strom, J; Virtanen, A; Riipinen, I
2018 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 18 (16) (12477-12489)

A reference data set for validating vapor pressure measurement techniques: homologous series of polyethylene glycols

Krieger, UK; Siegrist, F; Marcolli, C; Emanuelsson, EU; Gobel, FM; Bilde, M; Marsh, A; Reid, JP; Huisman, AJ; Riipinen, I; Hyttinen, N; Myllys, N; Kurten, T; Bannan, T; Percival, CJ; Topping, D
2018 | Atmos. Meas. Tech. | 11 (1) (49-63)
To predict atmospheric partitioning of organic compounds between gas and aerosol particle phase based on explicit models for gas phase chemistry, saturation vapor pressures of the compounds need to be estimated. Estimation methods based on functional group contributions require training sets of compounds with well-established saturation vapor pressures. However, vapor pressures of semivolatile and low-volatility organic molecules at atmospheric temperatures reported in the literature often differ by several orders of magnitude between measurement techniques. These discrepancies exceed the stated uncertainty of each technique which is generally reported to be smaller than a factor of 2. At present, there is no general reference technique for measuring saturation vapor pressures of atmospherically relevant compounds with low vapor pressures at atmospheric temperatures. To address this problem, we measured vapor pressures with different techniques over a wide temperature range for intercomparison and to establish a reliable training set. We determined saturation vapor pressures for the homologous series of polyethylene glycols (H-(O-CH2-CH2)(n)-OH) for n = 3 to n = 8 ranging in vapor pressure at 298 K from 10(-7) to 5 x 10(-2) Pa and compare them with quantum chemistry calculations. Such a homologous series provides a reference set that covers several orders of magnitude in saturation vapor pressure, allowing a critical assessment of the lower limits of detection of vapor pressures for the different techniques as well as permitting the identification of potential sources of systematic error. Also, internal consistency within the series allows outlying data to be rejected more easily. Most of the measured vapor pressures agreed within the stated uncertainty range. Deviations mostly occurred for vapor pressure values approaching the lower detection limit of a technique. The good agreement between the measurement techniques (some of which are sensitive to the mass accommodation coefficient and some not) suggests that the mass accommodation coefficients of the studied compounds are close to unity. The quantum chemistry calculations were about 1 order of magnitude higher than the measurements. We find that extrapolation of vapor pressures from elevated to atmospheric temperatures is permissible over a range of about 100 K for these compounds, suggesting that measurements should be performed best at temperatures yielding the highest-accuracy data, allowing subsequent extrapolation to atmospheric temperatures.

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