Total Fluorine Measurements in Food Packaging: How Do Current Methods Perform?

Lara Schultes; Graham F. Peaslee; John D. Brockman; Ashabari Majumdar; Sean R. McGuinness; John T. Wilkinson; Oskar Sandblom; Ruth A. Ngwenyama; Jonathan P. Benskin
2019 | Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett.

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) represent a class of more than 4000 compounds. Their large number and structural diversity pose a considerable challenge to analytical chemists. Measurement of total fluorine in environmental samples and consumer products is therefore critical for rapidly screening for PFASs and for assessing the fraction of unexplained fluorine(i.e., fluorine mass balance). Here we compare three emerging analytical techniques for total fluorine determination: combustion ion chromatography (CIC), particle-induced γ-ray emission spectroscopy (PIGE), and instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Application of each method to a certified reference material (CRM), spiked filters, and representative food packaging samples revealed good accuracy and precision. INAA and PIGE had the advantage of being nondestructive, while CIC displayed the lowest detection limits. Inconsistencies between the methods arose due to the high aluminum content in the CRM, which precluded its analysis by INAA, and sample heterogeneity (i.e., coating on the surface of the material), which resulted in higher values from the surface measurement technique PIGE compared to the values from the bulk volume techniques INAA and CIC. Comparing CIC-based extractable organic fluorine to target PFAS measurements of food packaging samples by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry revealed large amounts of unidentified organic fluorine not captured by compound-specific analysis.

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances and fluorine mass balance in cosmetic products from the Swedish market: implications for environmental emissions and human exposure

Lara Schultes; Robin Vestergren; Kristina Volkova; Emelie Westberg; Therese Jacobson; Jonathan P. Benskin
2018 | Environ. Sci.-Process Impacts

Determination of polar organic micropollutants in surface and pore water by high-resolution sampling-direct injection-ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Malte Posselt; Anna Jaeger; Jonas L Schaper; Michael Radke; Jonathan P. Benskin
2018 | Environ. Sci.-Process Impacts | 20 (1716-1727)

Sulfluramid use in Brazilian agriculture: A source of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) to the environment

Rodrigo A Nascimento; Deborah BO Nunoo; Ekhine Bizkarguenaga; Lara Schultes; Itsaso Zabaleta; Jonathan P. Benskin; Saulo Spanó; Juliana Leonel
2018 | Environ. Pollut. | In Press

Inter-individual, inter-city, and temporal trends of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in human milk from Swedish mothers between 1972 and 2016

Elisabeth Nyberg; Raed Awad; Anders Bignert; Caroline Ek; Gerd Sällsten; Jonathan P. Benskin
2018 | Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts | In Press

Nontarget Time Trend Screening in Human Blood

2018 | Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. | In Press

Determination of Chlorinated Paraffins by Bromide-Anion Attachment Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

Yuan B, Benskin JP, Chen CL, Bergman Å
2018 | Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. | In Press

Biodegradation and Uptake of the Pesticide Sulfluramid in a Soil/Carrot Mesocosm

Itsaso Zabaleta; Ekhine Bizkarguenaga; Deborah B. O. Nunoo; Lara Schultes; Juliana Leonel; Ailette Prieto; Olatz Zuloaga; Jonathan P. Benskin
2018 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 52 (5) (2603-2611)

Short-, medium-and long-chain chlorinated paraffins in wildlife from paddy fields in the Yangtze River Delta

Du X, Yuan B, Zhou Y, Benskin JP, Qiu Y, Yin G, Zhao J
2018 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | In Press

Perfluoroalkyl acid levels in first-time mothers in relation to offspring weight gain and growth

Gyllenhammar I, Diderholm B, Gustafsson J, Berger U, Ridefelt P, Benskin JP, Lignell S, Lampa E, Glynn A.
2018 | Environ Int | 111 (191-199)

Biotransformation of 8:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diester in gilthead bream (Sparus aurata)

Itsaso Zabaleta; Ekhine Bizkarguenaga; Urtzi Izagirre; Noelia Negreira; Adrian Covaci; Jonathan P. Benskin; Ailette Prieto; Olatz Zuloaga;
2017 | Sci. Total Environ.

Polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs) are high production volume surfactants used in the food contact paper and packaging industry. PAPs may transform to persistent perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) under biotic conditions, but little is known about their fate and behavior in aquatic organisms. Here we report for the first time on the uptake, tissue distribution, and biotransformation of 8:2 polyfluoroalkyl phosphate diester (8:2 diPAP) in fish. Gilt-head bream (Sparus aurata) were dosed via the diet (8:2 diPAP at 29μg/ g) for 7days, during which time 8:2 diPAP and its transformation products were monitored in plasma, liver, muscle, gills, bile and brain. 8:2 diPAP tended to accumulate in liver, plasma and gills, and to a lesser extent in muscle, bile and brain. Several transformation products (observed previously in other organisms) were also observed in most tissues and biofluids, including both saturated and unsaturated fluorotelomer acids (8:2 FTCA, 8:2 FTUCA, 7:3 FTCA), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). 8:2 FTCA was the major metabolite in all tissues/biofluids, except for bile, where PFOA occurred at the highest concentrations. Unexpectedly high PFOA levels (up to 3.7ng/g) were also detected in brain. Phase II metabolites, which have been reported in fish following exposure to fluorotelomer alcohols, were not observed in these experiments, probably due to their low abundance. Nevertheless, the detection of PFOA indicates that exposure to PAPs may be an indirect route of exposure to PFCAs in fish.

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in San Francisco Bay wildlife: Temporal trends, exposure pathways, and notable presence of precursor compounds

Sedlak, MD; Benskin, JP; Wong, A; Grace, R; Greig DJ.
2017 | Chemosphere

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