An innovative integrated system of models and databases in support to the prioritisation of emerging contaminants on a European scale

| Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)

SETAC Europe, 25th Annual Meeting | June 13, 2024 | Barcelona, Spain

An empirically derived inorganic sea spray source function incorporating sea surface temperature

| Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 15 (11047-11066)

We have developed an inorganic sea spray source function that is based upon state-of-the-art measurements of sea spray aerosol production using a temperature-controlled plunging jet sea spray aerosol chamber. The size-resolved particle production was measured between 0.01 and 10 μm dry diameter. Particle production decreased non-linearly with increasing seawater temperature (between −1 and 30 °C) similar to previous findings. In addition, we observed that the particle effective radius, as well as the particle surface, particle volume and particle mass, increased with increasing seawater temperature due to increased production of particles with dry diameters greater than 1 μm. By combining these measurements with the volume of air entrained by the plunging jet we have determined the size-resolved particle flux as a function of air entrainment. Through the use of existing parameterisations of air entrainment as a function of wind speed, we were subsequently able to scale our laboratory measurements of particle production to wind speed. By scaling in this way we avoid some of the difficulties associated with defining the "white area" of the laboratory whitecap – a contentious issue when relating laboratory measurements of particle production to oceanic whitecaps using the more frequently applied whitecap method.

The here-derived inorganic sea spray source function was implemented in a Lagrangian particle dispersion model (FLEXPART – FLEXible PARTicle dispersion model). An estimated annual global flux of inorganic sea spray aerosol of 5.9 ± 0.2 Pg yr−1 was derived that is close to the median of estimates from the same model using a wide range of existing sea spray source functions. When using the source function derived here, the model also showed good skill in predicting measurements of Na+ concentration at a number of field sites further underlining the validity of our source function.

In a final step, the sensitivity of a large-scale model (NorESM – the Norwegian Earth System Model) to our new source function was tested. Compared to the previously implemented parameterisation, a clear decrease of sea spray aerosol number flux and increase in aerosol residence time was observed, especially over the Southern Ocean. At the same time an increase in aerosol optical depth due to an increase in the number of particles with optically relevant sizes was found. That there were noticeable regional differences may have important implications for aerosol optical properties and number concentrations, subsequently also affecting the indirect radiative forcing by non-sea spray anthropogenic aerosols.

Cellular Dose of Partly Soluble Cu Particle Aerosols at the Air–Liquid Interface Using an In Vitro Lung Cell Exposure System

| J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv | 26 (2) (84-93)
air–liquid interface , cellular doses , copper particles , in vitro exposure system , nanoparticle deposition , nanoparticle dissolution , nanotoxicology

BACKGROUND:
There is currently a need to develop and test in vitro systems for predicting the toxicity of nanoparticles. One challenge is to determine the actual cellular dose of nanoparticles after exposure.
METHODS:
In this study, human epithelial lung cells (A549) were exposed to airborne Cu particles at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The cellular dose was determined for two different particle sizes at different deposition conditions, including constant and pulsed Cu aerosol flow.
RESULTS:
Airborne polydisperse particles with a geometric mean diameter (GMD) of 180 nm [geometric standard deviation (GSD) 1.5, concentration 10(5) particles/mL] deposited at the ALI yielded a cellular dose of 0.4-2.6 μg/cm(2) at pulsed flow and 1.6-7.6 μg/cm(2) at constant flow. Smaller polydisperse particles in the nanoregime (GMD 80 nm, GSD 1.5, concentration 10(7) particles/mL) resulted in a lower cellular dose of 0.01-0.05 μg/cm(2) at pulsed flow, whereas no deposition was observed at constant flow. Exposure experiments with and without cells showed that the Cu particles were partly dissolved upon deposition on cells and in contact with medium.
CONCLUSIONS:
Different cellular doses were obtained for the different Cu particle sizes (generated with different methods). Furthermore, the cellular doses were affected by the flow conditions in the cell exposure system and the solubility of Cu. The cellular doses of Cu presented here are the amount of Cu that remained on the cells after completion of an experiment. As Cu particles were partly dissolved, Cu (a nonnegligible contribution) was, in addition, present and analyzed in the nourishing medium present beneath the cells. This study presents cellular doses induced by Cu particles and demonstrates difficulties with deposition of nanoparticles at the ALI and of partially soluble particles.

Estimating the major sources of PFOS and PFOA to the Danube River catchment

| Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)

SETAC Europe, 25th Annual Meeting | June 13, 2024 | Barcelona, Spain

Madrid Statement on Poly- and Perfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)

| Environ. Health Perspect. | 123 (A107-A111)

Intracellular Uptake and Toxicity of Ag and CuO Nanoparticles: A Comparison Between Nanoparticles and their Corresponding Metal Ions

| Small | 9 (7) (970-982)

Identifying chemicals that are planetary boundary threats-

| Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)

SETAC Europe, 25th Annual Meeting | June 13, 2024 | Barcelona, Spain

Response and recovery of Baltic Sea blue mussels from exposure to pharmaceuticals

| Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. | 526 (89-100)
baltic sea , Disturbance recovery , Effluent gradient , Mytilus edulis trossulus , Physiology , pollutants , Pre-exposure

Aerosol transport over the Andes from the Amazon Basin to the remote Pacific Ocean: A multiyear CALIOP assessment

| J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. | 120 (16) (8411-8425)

Six years (2007–2012) of data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) satellite instrument were used to investigate the vertical distribution and transport of aerosols over the tropical South American continent and the southeast Pacific Ocean. The multiyear aerosol extinction assessment indicates that aerosols, mainly biomass burning particles emitted during the dry season in the Amazon Basin, are lifted in significant amounts over the Andes. The aerosols are mainly transported in the planetary boundary layer between the surface and 2 km altitude with an aerosol extinction maximum near the surface. During the transport toward the Andes, the aerosol extinction decreases at a rate of 0.02 km−1 per kilometer of altitude likely due to dilution and deposition processes. Aerosols reaching the top of the Andes, at altitudes typically between 4 and 5 km, are entrained into the free troposphere (FT) over the southeast Pacific Ocean. A comparison between CALIOP observations and ERA-Interim reanalysis data indicates that during their long-range transport over the tropical Pacific Ocean, these aerosols are slowly transported toward the marine boundary layer by the large-scale subsidence at a rate of 0.4 cm s−1. The observed vertical/horizontal transport ratio is 0.7–0.8 m km−1. Continental aerosols linked to transport over the Andes can be traced on average over 4000 km away from the continent indicating an aerosol residence time of 8–9 days in the FT over the Pacific Ocean. The FT aerosol optical depth (AOD) above the Pacific Ocean near South American coast accounts on average for 6% and 25% of the total AOD during the season of low and high biomass burning, respectively. This result shows that, during the biomass burning season, continental aerosols largely influence the AOD over the remote southeast Pacific Ocean. Overall, FT AOD decrease exponentially with the distance to continental sources at a rate of about 10% per degree of longitude over the Pacific Ocean.

Effect of sonication and serum proteins on copper release from copper nanoparticles and the toxicity towards lung epithelial cells

| Nanotoxicology | 5 (2) (269-281)
nanomedicine , nanoparticles , nanotoxicology , particle toxicology

Different methodological settings can influence particle characteristics and toxicity in nanotoxicology. The aim of this study was to investigate how serum proteins and sonication of Cu nanoparticle suspensions influence the properties of the nanoparticles and toxicological responses on human lung epithelial cells. This was investigated by using methods for particle characterization (photon correlation spectroscopy and TEM) and Cu release (atomic absorption spectroscopy) in combination with assays for analyzing cell toxicity (MTT-, trypan blue- and Comet assay). The results showed that sonication of Cu nanoparticles caused decreased cell viability and increased Cu release compared to non-sonicated particles. Furthermore, serum in the cell medium resulted in less particle agglomeration and increased Cu release compared with medium without serum, but no clear difference in toxicity was detected. Few cells showed intracellular Cu nanoparticles due to fast release/dissolution processes of Cu. In conclusion; sonication can affect the toxicity of nanoparticles.

A large-scale model for simulating the fate & transport of organic contaminants in river basins

| Chemosphere | 144 (803-810)

Challenges in constraining anthropogenic aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing using present-day spatiotemporal variability

| Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. | Early Edition
aerosol radiative forcing , cloud−aerosol interactions , constraints factors

A large number of processes are involved in the chain from emissions of aerosol precursor gases and primary particles to impacts on cloud radiative forcing. Those processes are manifest in a number of relationships that can be expressed as factors dlnX/dlnY driving aerosol effects on cloud radiative forcing. These factors include the relationships between cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration and emissions, droplet number and CCN concentration, cloud fraction and droplet number, cloud optical depth and droplet number, and cloud radiative forcing and cloud optical depth. The relationship between cloud optical depth and droplet number can be further decomposed into the sum of two terms involving the relationship of droplet effective radius and cloud liquid water path with droplet number. These relationships can be constrained using observations of recent spatial and temporal variability of these quantities. However, we are most interested in the radiative forcing since the preindustrial era. Because few relevant measurements are available from that era, relationships from recent variability have been assumed to be applicable to the preindustrial to present-day change. Our analysis of Aerosol Comparisons between Observations and Models (AeroCom) model simulations suggests that estimates of relationships from recent variability are poor constraints on relationships from anthropogenic change for some terms, with even the sign of some relationships differing in many regions. Proxies connecting recent spatial/temporal variability to anthropogenic change, or sustained measurements in regions where emissions have changed, are needed to constrain estimates of anthropogenic aerosol impacts on cloud radiative forcing.

Contact information

Visiting addresses:

Geovetenskapens Hus,
Svante Arrhenius väg 8, Stockholm

Arrheniuslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16, Stockholm (Unit for Toxicological Chemistry)

Mailing address:
Department of Environmental Science
Stockholm University
106 91 Stockholm

Press enquiries should be directed to:

Stella Papadopoulou
Science Communicator
Phone +46 (0)8 674 70 11
stella.papadopoulou@aces.su.se