Understanding the exposure, body concentration and elimination of PFASs in the North American population.

2013 | SU

23rd SETAC Europe Annual Meeting | September 29, 2023 | Glasgow, Scotland, UK

Why do women eliminate PFOS faster than men?

2013 | SU

5th International Workshop on Per- and Polyfluorinated Alkyl Substances - PFAS | September 29, 2023 | Konventum, Helsingör, Denmark

Junge relationships in measurement data for cyclic siloxanes in air

MacLeod, M; Kierkegaard, A; Genualdi, S; Harner, T; Scheringer, M
2013 | Chemosphere | 93 (5) (830-834)
atmosphere , chemicals , d-3 , d-4 , d-5 , d-6 , ftoh , lifetime , multimedia models , oh , persistence , variability-lifetime relationship

In 1974, Junge postulated a relationship between variability of concentrations of gases in air at remote locations and their atmospheric residence time, and this Junge relationship has subsequently been observed empirically for a range of trace gases. Here, we analyze two previously-published datasets of concentrations of cyclic volatile methyl siloxanes (cVMS) in air and find Junge relationships in both. The first dataset is a time series of concentrations of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D-5) measured between January and June, 2009 at a rural site in southern Sweden that shows a Junge relationship in the temporal variability of the measurements. The second dataset consists of measurements of hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D-3), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D-4) and D-5 made simultaneously at 12 sites in the Global Atmospheric Passive Sampling (GAPS) network that shows a Junge relationship in the spatial variability of the three cVMS congeners. We use the Junge relationship for the GAPS dataset to estimate atmospheric lifetimes of dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D-6), 8:2-fluorotelomer alcohol and trichlorinated biphenyls that are within a factor of 3 of estimates based on degradation rate constants for reaction with hydroxyl radical determined in laboratory studies. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Bounding uncertainties in intrinsic human elimination half-lives and intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the North American population.

2013 | Environ Int | 59 (168-174)

Global environmental fate of C6-C10 perfluoroalkane sulfonic acid (PFSA) homologues from 1958 to 2030: sources and transport.

Wang, Z.; Cousins, I.T.; Scheringer, M.; Macleod, M.; Hungerbuehler, K.
2013 | SU

SETAC North American 34th Annual Meeting | September 29, 2023 | Nashville, TN, US

Concentrations in ambient air and emissions of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes in Zurich, Switzerland

Buser, A.M.; Kierkegaard, A.; Bogdal, C.; MacLeod, M.; Scheringer, M.; Hungerbühler, K.
2013 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 47 (7045-7051)

Tens of thousands of tonnes of cyclic volatile methylsiloxanes (cVMS) are used each year globally, which leads to high and continuous cVMS emissions to air. However, field measurements of cVMS in air and empirical information about emission rates to air are still limited. Here we present measurements of decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6) in air for Zurich, Switzerland. The measurements were performed in January and February 2011 over a period of eight days and at two sites (city center and background) with a temporal resolution of 6–12 hours. Concentrations of D5 and D6 are higher in the center of Zurich and range from 100 to 650 ng m−3 and from 10 to 79 ng m−3, respectively. These values are among the highest levels of D5 and D6 reported in the literature. In a second step, we used a multimedia environmental fate model parameterized for the region of Zurich to interpret the levels and time trends in the cVMS concentrations and to back-calculate the emission rate of D5 and D6 from the city of Zurich. The average emission rates obtained for D5 and D6 are 120 kg d–1 and 14 kg d–1, respectively, which corresponds to per-capita emissions of 310 mg capita−1 d−1 for D5 and 36 mg capita−1 d−1 for D6.

A benchmarking method to measure dietary absorption efficiency of chemicals by fish

Ruiyang Xiao; Margaretha Adolfsson-Erici; Gun Åkerman; Michael McLachlan; Matthew MacLeod
2013 | Environ. Toxicol. Chem. | 12 (2695-2700)

Emissions, fate and transport of persistent organic pollutants to the Arctic in a changing global climate

Wöhrnschimmel, H.; MacLeod, M.; Hungerbühler, K.
2013 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 47 (2323-2330)

Climate change is expected to alter patterns of human economic activity and the associated emissions of chemicals, and also to affect the transport and fate of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Here, we use a global-scale multimedia chemical fate model to analyze and quantify the impact of climate change on emissions and fate of POPs, and their transport to the Arctic. First, climate change effects under the SRES-A2 scenario are illustrated using case-studies for two well-characterized POPs, PCB153, and α-HCH. Then, we model the combined impact of altered emission patterns and climatic conditions on environmental concentrations of potential future-use substances with a broad range of chemical properties. Starting from base-case generic emission scenarios, we postulate changes in emission patterns that may occur in response to climate change: enhanced usage of industrial chemicals in an ice-free Arctic, and intensified application of agrochemicals due to higher crop production and poleward expansion of potential arable land. We find both increases and decreases in concentrations of POP-like chemicals in the Arctic in the climate change scenario compared to the base-case climate. During the phase of ongoing primary emissions, modeled increases in Arctic contamination are up to a factor of 2 in air and water, and are driven mostly by changes in emission patterns. After phase-out, increases are up to a factor of 2 in air and 4 in water, and are mostly attributable to changes in transport and fate of chemicals under the climate change scenario.

Emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, and polychlorinated dibenzofurans during 2010 and 2011 in Zurich, Switzerland

Christian Bogdal; Claudia E Mueller; Andreas M Buser; Zhanyun Wang; Martin Scheringer; Andreas C Gerecke; Peter Schmid; Markus Zennegg; Matthew MacLeod; Konrad Hungerbuehler
2013 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 48 (482-490)

Mountain cold-trapping increases transfer of persistent organic pollutants from atmosphere to cows’ milk

Shunthirasingham, C.; Wania, F.; MacLeod, M.; Lei, Y.D.; Quinn, C.; Zhang, X.; Scheringer, M.; Wegmann, F.; Hungerbühler, K.; Ivemeyer, S.; Heil, F.; Klocke, P.; Pacepavicius, G.; Alaee, M.
2013 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | (in press)

Concentrations of long-lived organic contaminants in snow, soil, lake water and vegetation have been observed to increase with altitude along mountain slopes. Such enrichment, called “mountain cold-trapping”, is attributed to a transition from the atmospheric gas phase to particles, rain droplets, snowflakes and Earth’s surface at the lower temperatures prevailing at higher elevations. Milk sampled repeatedly from cows that had grazed at three different altitudes in Switzerland during one summer was analyzed for a range of persistent organic pollutants. Mountain cold-trapping significantly increased air-to-milk transfer factors of most analytes. As a result the milk of cows grazing at higher altitudes was more contaminated with substances that have regionally uniform air concentrations (hexachlorobenzene, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane, endosulfan sulfate). For substances that have sources, and therefore higher air concentrations, at lower altitudes (polychlorinated biphenyls, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane), alpine milk has lower concentrations, but not as low as would be expected without mountain cold-trapping. Differences in the elevational gradients in soil concentrations and air-to-milk transfer factors highlight that cold trapping of POPs in pastures is mostly due to increased gas phase deposition as a result of lower temperatures causing higher uptake capacity of plant foliage, whereas cold trapping in soils more strongly depends on wet and dry particle deposition. Climatic influences on air-to-milk transfer of POPs needs to be accounted for when using contamination of milk lipids to infer contamination of the atmosphere.

Is our empirical understanding of intake, body burden and elimination of PBDEs self-consistent? Case studies for the Norwegian and North American Populations.

Wong, F.; Cousins, I.T.; MacLeod, M.; Cequier, E.; Thomson, C.; Becher, G.; Knutsen, H.K.
2013 | SU

Dopxin 2013 - The 33rd International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants | September 29, 2023 | Daegu, South Korea

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