DNA as an in vitro trapping agent for detection of bulky genotoxic metabolites
Physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles and cloud residuals on Mt. Åreskutan in Central Sweden during summer 2014Download
The size distribution, volatility and hygroscopicity of ambient aerosols and cloud residuals were measured with a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) and a volatility–hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (VHTDMA) coupled to a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) inlet during the Cloud and Aerosol
Experiment at Åre (CAEsAR) campaign at Mt. Åreskutan during summer 2014. The chemical composition
of particulate matter (PM) and cloud water were analysed offline using thermo-optical OC/EC analysis and ion chromatography. The importance of aerosol particle size for cloud droplet activation and subsequent particle scavenging was clearly visible in the measured size distributions. Cloud residuals were shifted towards larger sizes compared to ambient aerosol, and the cloud events were followed by a size distribution
dominated by smaller particles. Organics dominated both PM (62% organic mass fraction) and cloud water (63% organic mass fraction) composition. The volatility and hygroscopicity of the ambient aerosols were representative of homogeneous aged aerosol with contributions from biogenic secondary organics, with
median volume fraction remaining (VFR) of 0.04–0.05, and median hygroscopicity parameter j of 0.16–0.24 for 100–300 nm particles. The corresponding VFR and j for the cloud residuals were 0.03–0.04 and 0.18–0.20. The chemical composition, hygroscopicity and volatility measurements thus showed no major
differences between the ambient aerosol particles and cloud residuals. The VFR and j values predicted based on the chemical composition measurements agreed well with the VHTDMA measurements, indicating the bulk chemical composition to be a reasonable approximation throughout the size distribution. There were
indications, however, of some more subtle changes in time scales not achievable by the offline chemical analysis applied here. Further, online observations of aerosol and cloud residual chemical composition are therefore warranted.
Associations between Vehicle Exhaust Particles and Ozone at Home Address and Birth Weight
We have studied the associations between exhaust particles and birth weight. Adjustments were made for ozone and potential confounding factors at the individual level. The study included all singletons conceived between August 2003 and February 2013 with mothers living in Greater Stockholm. We obtained record-based register data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Data concerning the parents were provided by Statistics Sweden. Exposure levels for nearly 187,000 pregnancies were calculated using a validated air quality dispersion model with input from a detailed emission database. A higher socioeconomic status was associated with higher levels of exhaust particles at the home address. In this region, with rather low air pollution levels, the associations between levels of exhaust particles and birth weight were negative for all three of the studied exposure windows (i.e., first and second trimester and full pregnancy). For the entire pregnancy, the linear decrease in birth weight was 7.5 grams (95% CI−12.0; −2.9) for an increase in exposure, corresponding to the inter quartile range (IQR = 209 ng/m3). We also found that the risk of being born small for gestational age increased with the level of exhaust particles in all three exposure windows, but these associations were not statistically significant.