Parallelogram based approach for in vivo dose estimation of genotoxic metabolites in humans with relevance to reduction of animal experiments
Prolonged Exposure to Bisphenol A from Single Dermal Contact Events
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor frequently detected in human biofluids. Dermal absorption of BPA from thermal paper receipts occurs but BPA pharmacokinetics following dermal exposure is not understood. To compare the pharmacokinetics of dermal and dietary BPA exposure, six male participants handled simulated receipts containing relevant levels of BPA (isotope-labeled BPA-d(16)) for 5 min, followed by hand-washing 2 h later. Urine (0-48 h) and serum (0-7.5 h) were monitored for free and total BPA-d16. One week later, participants returned for a dietary administration with monitoring as above. One participant repeated the dermal administration with extended monitoring of urine (9 days) and serum (2 days). After dietary exposure, urine total BPA-d16 peaked within 5 h and quickly cleared within 24 h. After dermal exposure, cumulative excretion increased linearly for 2 days, and half the participants still had detectable urinary total BPA-d(16) after 1 week. The participant repeating the dermal exposure had detectable BPA-d(16) in urine for 9 days, showed linear cumulative excretion over 5 days, and had detectable free BPA-d(16) in serum. Proportions of free BPA-d(16) in urine following dermal exposure (0.71%-8.3% of total BPA-d(16)) were generally higher than following the dietary exposure (0.29%-1.4%). Compared to dietary BPA exposure, dermal absorption of BPA leads to prolonged exposure and may lead to higher proportions of unconjugated BPA in systemic circulation.
A new aerosol wet removal scheme for the Lagrangian particle model FLEXPART v10
Temporal Trends of C8–C36 Chlorinated Paraffins in Swedish Coastal Sediment Cores over the Past 80 Years
Do contemporary (1980-2015) emissions determine the elemental carbon deposition trend at Holtedahlfonna glacier, Svalbard?
Land-use and land-cover change carbon emissions between 1901 and 2012 constrained by biomass observations
The use of dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) to estimate CO2 emissions from land-use and land-cover change (LULCC) offers a new window to account for spatial and temporal details of emissions and for ecosystem processes affected by LULCC. One drawback of LULCC emissions from DGVMs, however, is lack of observation constraint. Here, we propose a new method of using satellite- and inventory-based biomass observations to constrain historical cumulative LULCC emissions (ELUCc) from an ensemble of nine DGVMs based on emerging relationships between simulated vegetation biomass and ELUCc. This method is applicable on the global and regional scale. The original DGVM estimates of ELUCc range from 94 to 273 PgC during 1901–2012. After constraining by current biomass observations, we derive a best estimate of 155 ± 50 PgC (1σ Gaussian error). The constrained LULCC emissions are higher than prior DGVM values in tropical regions but significantly lower in North America. Our emergent constraint approach independently verifies the median model estimate by biomass observations, giving support to the use of this estimate in carbon budget assessments. The uncertainty in the constrained ELUCc is still relatively large because of the uncertainty in the biomass observations, and thus reduced uncertainty in addition to increased accuracy in biomass observations in the future will help improve the constraint. This constraint method can also be applied to evaluate the impact of land-based mitigation activities.
Certain Perfluoroalkyl and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Associated with Aqueous Film Forming Foam Are Widespread in Canadian Surface Waters
The presence of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) commonly associated with aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) at sites without known AFFF contamination is a largely unexplored area, which may reveal widespread environmental contaminants requiring further investigation. Sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) screening for 23 classes of PFASs, followed by quantitative analysis was used to investigate surface waters from rural, urban, and AFFF-impacted sites in Canada. The PFASs detected included perfluorohexane sulfonamide (FHxSA), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide (FTSAm), fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylbetaines (FTABs), fluorotelomer betaines (FTBs), 6:2 fluorotelomer mercaptoalkylamido sulfonate sulfone (FTSAS-SO2), 6:2 fluorotelomerthiohydroxyl ammonium sulfoxide (FTSHA-SO), 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamide alkylamine (FTAA) and C3 to C6 perfluoroalkane sulfonamido amphoterics. Detection of FHxSA in all urban and AFFF-impacted sites (0.04–19 ng/L) indicates the widespread presence of rarely considered perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) precursors in Canadian waters. FTABs and FTBs were especially abundant with up to 16–33 ng/L of 6:2 FTAB in urban and AFFF-impacted water suggesting it may have additional applications, while FTBs were only in AFFF-impacted sites (qualitative; ΣFTBs 80 ng/L). The distributions of PFASs moving downstream along the AFFF-impacted Welland River and between water and sediment suggested differences in the persistence of various AFFF components and enhanced sorption of long-chain fluorotelomer betaines. Total organofluorine combustion-ion chromatography (TOF-CIC) revealed that fluorotelomer betaines were a substantial portion of the organofluorine in some waters and 36–99.7% of the total organofluorine was not measured in the targeted analysis.