Multidecadal trend analysis of in situ aerosol radiative properties around the world

Collaud Coen, M.; Andrews, E.; Alastuey, A.; Arsov, T. P.; Backman, J.; Brem, B. T.; Bukowiecki, N.; Couret, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Flentje, H.; Fiebig, M.; Gysel-Beer, M.; Hand, J. L.; Hoffer, A.; Hooda, R.; Hueglin, C.; Joubert, W.; Keywood, M.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, S.-W.; Labuschagne, C.; Lin, N.-H.; Lin, Y.; Lund Myhre, C.; Luoma, K.; Lyamani, H.; Marinoni, A.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Pandolfi, M.; Prats, N.; Prenni, A. J.; Putaud, J.-P.; Ries, L.; Reisen, F.; Sellegri, K.; Sharma, S.; Sheridan, P.; Sherman, J. P.; Sun, J.; Titos, G.; Torres, E.; Tuch, T.; Weller, R.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zieger, P.; Laj, P.
2020 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 20 (8867-8908)

In order to assess the evolution of aerosol parameters affecting climate change, a long-term trend analysis of aerosol optical properties was performed on time series from 52 stations situated across five continents. The time series of measured scattering, backscattering and absorption coefficients as well as the derived single scattering albedo, backscattering fraction, scattering and absorption Ångström exponents covered at least 10 years and up to 40 years for some stations. The non-parametric seasonal Mann–Kendall (MK) statistical test associated with several pre-whitening methods and with Sen's slope was used as the main trend analysis method. Comparisons with general least mean square associated with autoregressive bootstrap (GLS/ARB) and with standard least mean square analysis (LMS) enabled confirmation of the detected MK statistically significant trends and the assessment of advantages and limitations of each method. Currently, scattering and backscattering coefficient trends are mostly decreasing in Europe and North America and are not statistically significant in Asia, while polar stations exhibit a mix of increasing and decreasing trends. A few increasing trends are also found at some stations in North America and Australia. Absorption coefficient time series also exhibit primarily decreasing trends. For single scattering albedo, 52 % of the sites exhibit statistically significant positive trends, mostly in Asia, eastern/northern Europe and the Arctic, 22 % of sites exhibit statistically significant negative trends, mostly in central Europe and central North America, while the remaining 26 % of sites have trends which are not statistically significant. In addition to evaluating trends for the overall time series, the evolution of the trends in sequential 10-year segments was also analyzed. For scattering and backscattering, statistically significant increasing 10-year trends are primarily found for earlier periods (10-year trends ending in 2010–2015) for polar stations and Mauna Loa. For most of the stations, the present-day statistically significant decreasing 10-year trends of the single scattering albedo were preceded by not statistically significant and statistically significant increasing 10-year trends. The effect of air pollution abatement policies in continental North America is very obvious in the 10-year trends of the scattering coefficient – there is a shift to statistically significant negative trends in 2009–2012 for all stations in the eastern and central USA. This long-term trend analysis of aerosol radiative properties with a broad spatial coverage provides insight into potential aerosol effects on climate changes.

Carbon loss from northern circumpolar permafrost soils amplified by rhizosphere priming

Keuper F.; Wild B.; Kummu M.; Beer C.; Blume-Werry G.; Fontaine S.; Gavazov K.; Gentsch Norman; Guggenberger G.; Hugelius G.; Jalava M.; Koven C.; Krab E.J.; Kuhry P.; Monteux S.; Richter A.; Shahzad T.; Weedon J.T.; Dorrepaal E.
2020 | Nat. Geosci. | 13 (560-565)

DNA as an in vitro trapping agent for detection of bulky genotoxic metabolites

2020 | J. Chromatogr. B | 1152 (122276)

Microbial degradation of hydrophobic emerging contaminants from marine sediment slurries (Capbreton Canyon) to pure bacterial strain

Azaroff A; Mathilde M; Miossec C; Gassie C; Guyneaud R
2020 | J. Hazard. Mater.

Per- and poly-fluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) current status and research needs

Naidu, R.; Nadebaum, P.; Fang, C.; Cousins, I.T.; Pennel, K.; Conder, J.; Newell, C.J.; Longpré, D.; Warner, S.; Crosbie, N.D.; Surapaneni, A.; Bekele, D.; Spiese, R.; Bradshaw, T.; Slee, D.; Liu, Y.; Qi, F.; Mallavarapu, M.; Duan, L.; McLeod, L.; Bowman, M.; Richmond, B.; Srivastava, P.; Chadalavada, S.; Umeh, A.; Biswas, B.; Barclay, A.; Simon, J.; Nathanail, P.
2020 | Environmental Technology & Innovation | 19 (100915) (1-18)

Physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles and cloud residuals on Mt. Åreskutan in Central Sweden during summer 2014

Emelie Linnéa Graham; Paul Zieger; Claudia Mohr; Ulla Wideqvist; Tabea Hennig; Annica M. L. Ekman; Radovan Krejci; Johan Ström; lona Riipinen
2020 | Tellus Ser. B-Chem. Phys. Meteorol. | 72 (1) (1-16)

The size distribution, volatility and hygroscopicity of ambient aerosols and cloud residuals were measured with a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) and a volatility–hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (VHTDMA) coupled to a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) inlet during the Cloud and Aerosol
Experiment at Åre (CAEsAR) campaign at Mt. Åreskutan during summer 2014. The chemical composition
of particulate matter (PM) and cloud water were analysed offline using thermo-optical OC/EC analysis and ion chromatography. The importance of aerosol particle size for cloud droplet activation and subsequent particle scavenging was clearly visible in the measured size distributions. Cloud residuals were shifted towards larger sizes compared to ambient aerosol, and the cloud events were followed by a size distribution
dominated by smaller particles. Organics dominated both PM (62% organic mass fraction) and cloud water (63% organic mass fraction) composition. The volatility and hygroscopicity of the ambient aerosols were representative of homogeneous aged aerosol with contributions from biogenic secondary organics, with
median volume fraction remaining (VFR) of 0.04–0.05, and median hygroscopicity parameter j of 0.16–0.24 for 100–300 nm particles. The corresponding VFR and j for the cloud residuals were 0.03–0.04 and 0.18–0.20. The chemical composition, hygroscopicity and volatility measurements thus showed no major
differences between the ambient aerosol particles and cloud residuals. The VFR and j values predicted based on the chemical composition measurements agreed well with the VHTDMA measurements, indicating the bulk chemical composition to be a reasonable approximation throughout the size distribution. There were
indications, however, of some more subtle changes in time scales not achievable by the offline chemical analysis applied here. Further, online observations of aerosol and cloud residual chemical composition are therefore warranted.

Organic contaminant mixture significantly changes microbenthic community structure and increases the expression of PAH degradation genes

Iburg, I.; Nybom, I.; Bonaglia, S.; Karlson, A.M.L.; Sobek, A.; Nascimento, F.J.A.
2020 | Front. Environ. Sci. | 8

Strategies for grouping per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) to protect human and environmental health

Cousins, I.T.; DeWitt, J.C.; Glüge, J.; Goldenman, G.; Herzke, D.; Lohmann, R.; Miller, M.; Ng, C.A.; Scheringer, M.; Vierke, L.; Wang, Z.
2020 | Environ. Sci.-Process Impacts | 22 (1444-1460)

Estimating environmental hazard and risks from exposure to per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS): Outcome of a SETAC focused topic meeting

Johnson, M.S..; Buck, R.C.; Cousins, I.T.; Fenton, S.; Weis, C.
2020 | Environ. Toxicol. Chem. | XX (XX) (XXX-XXX)

Associations between Vehicle Exhaust Particles and Ozone at Home Address and Birth Weight

Olsson, D.; Johansson, C.; Forsberg, B.
2020 | Int J Environ Res Public Health | 17 (11)

We have studied the associations between exhaust particles and birth weight. Adjustments were made for ozone and potential confounding factors at the individual level. The study included all singletons conceived between August 2003 and February 2013 with mothers living in Greater Stockholm. We obtained record-based register data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Data concerning the parents were provided by Statistics Sweden. Exposure levels for nearly 187,000 pregnancies were calculated using a validated air quality dispersion model with input from a detailed emission database. A higher socioeconomic status was associated with higher levels of exhaust particles at the home address. In this region, with rather low air pollution levels, the associations between levels of exhaust particles and birth weight were negative for all three of the studied exposure windows (i.e., first and second trimester and full pregnancy). For the entire pregnancy, the linear decrease in birth weight was 7.5 grams (95% CI−12.0; −2.9) for an increase in exposure, corresponding to the inter quartile range (IQR = 209 ng/m3). We also found that the risk of being born small for gestational age increased with the level of exhaust particles in all three exposure windows, but these associations were not statistically significant.

Pharmaceuticals and Environment: a web-based decision support for considering environmental aspects of medicines in use

Ramström H; Martini S; Borgendahl J; Ågerstrand M; Lärfars G; Ovesjö M-L;
2020 | Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.

Strategies for grouping per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances

Cousins, I.T.; DeWitt, J.C.; Glüge, J.; Goldenman, G.; Herzke, D.; Lohmann, R.; Miller, M.; Ng, C.A.; Scheringer, M.; Vierke, L.; Wang, Z.
2020 | Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)

SETAC Europe 30th Annual Meeting: SciCon | May 7, 2020 | Online

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