From a polar to a marine environment: has the changing Arctic led to a shift in aerosol light scattering properties?

2020 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 20 (13671-13686)

The study of long-term trends in aerosol optical properties is an important task to understand the underlying aerosol processes influencing the change of climate. The Arctic, as the place where climate change manifests most, is an especially sensitive region of the world. Within this work, we use a unique long-term data record of key aerosol optical properties from the Zeppelin Observatory, Svalbard, to ask the question of whether the environmental changes of the last 2 decades in the Arctic are reflected in the observations. We perform a trend analysis of the measured particle light scattering and backscattering coefficients and the derived scattering Ångström exponent and hemispheric backscattering fraction. In contrast to previous studies, the effect of in-cloud scavenging and of potential sampling losses at the site are taken explicitly into account in the trend analysis. The analysis is combined with a back trajectory analysis and satellite-derived sea ice data to support the interpretation of the observed trends. We find that the optical properties of aerosol particles have undergone clear and significant changes in the past 2 decades. The scattering Ångström exponent exhibits statistically significant decreasing of between −4.9 % yr−1 and −6.5 % yr−1 (using wavelengths of λ=450 and 550 nm), while the particle light scattering coefficient exhibits statistically significant increasing trends of between 2.6 % yr−1 and 2.9 % yr−1 (at a wavelength of λ=550 nm). The magnitudes of the trends vary depending on the season. These trends indicate a shift to an aerosol dominated more by coarse-mode particles, most likely the result of increases in the relative amount of sea spray aerosol. We show that changes in air mass circulation patterns, specifically an increase in air masses from the south-west, are responsible for the shift in aerosol optical properties, while the decrease of Arctic sea ice in the last 2 decades only had a marginal influence on the observed trends.

Frequent new particle formation over the high Arctic pack ice by enhanced iodine emissions

Andrea Baccarini; Linn Karlsson; Josef Dommen; Patrick Duplessis; Jutta Vüllers; Ian M. Brooks; Alfonso Saiz-Lopez; Matthew Salter; Michael Tjernström; Urs Baltensperger; Paul Zieger; Julia Schmale
2020 | Nat. Commun. | 11 (4924 ) (1-11)

In the central Arctic Ocean the formation of clouds and their properties are sensitive to the availability of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The vapors responsible for new particle formation (NPF), potentially leading to CCN, have remained unidentified since the first aerosol measurements in 1991. Here, we report that all the observed NPF events from the Arctic Ocean 2018 expedition are driven by iodic acid with little contribution from sulfuric acid. Iodic acid largely explains the growth of ultrafine particles (UFP) in most events. The iodic acid concentration increases significantly from summer towards autumn, possibly linked to the ocean freeze-up and a seasonal rise in ozone. This leads to a one order of magnitude higher UFP concentration in autumn. Measurements of cloud residuals suggest that particles smaller than 30 nm in diameter can activate as CCN. Therefore, iodine NPF has the potential to influence cloud properties over the Arctic Ocean.

A global model–measurement evaluation of particle light scattering coefficients at elevated relative humidity

Burgos, M. A.; Andrews, E.; Titos, G.; Benedetti, A.; Bian, H.; Buchard, V.; Curci, G.; Kipling, Z.; Kirkevåg, A.; Kokkola, H.; Laakso, A.; Letertre-Danczak, J.; Lund, M. T.; Matsui, H.; Myhre, G.; Randles, C.; Schulz, M.; van Noije, T.; Zhang, K.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Baltensperger, U.; Jefferson, A.; Sherman, J.; Sun, J.; Weingartner, E.; Zieger, P.
2020 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 20 (10231-10258)

The uptake of water by atmospheric aerosols has a pronounced effect on particle light scattering properties, which in turn are strongly dependent on the ambient relative humidity (RH). Earth system models need to account for the aerosol water uptake and its influence on light scattering in order to properly capture the overall radiative effects of aerosols. Here we present a comprehensive model–measurement evaluation of the particle light scattering enhancement factor f(RH), defined as the particle light scattering coefficient at elevated RH (here set to 85 %) divided by its dry value. The comparison uses simulations from 10 Earth system models and a global dataset of surface-based in situ measurements. In general, we find a large diversity in the magnitude of predicted f(RH) amongst the different models, which can not be explained by the site types. Based on our evaluation of sea salt scattering enhancement and simulated organic mass fraction, there is a strong indication that differences in the model parameterizations of hygroscopicity and model chemistry are driving at least some of the observed diversity in simulated f(RH). Additionally, a key point is that defining dry conditions is difficult from an observational point of view and, depending on the aerosol, may influence the measured f(RH). The definition of dry also impacts our model evaluation, because several models exhibit significant water uptake between RH = 0 % and 40 %. The multisite average ratio between model outputs and measurements is 1.64 when RH = 0 % is assumed as the model dry RH and 1.16 when RH = 40 % is the model dry RH value. The overestimation by the models is believed to originate from the hygroscopicity parameterizations at the lower RH range which may not implement all phenomena taking place (i.e., not fully dried particles and hysteresis effects). This will be particularly relevant when a location is dominated by a deliquescent aerosol such as sea salt. Our results emphasize the need to consider the measurement conditions in such comparisons and recognize that measurements referred to as dry may not be dry in model terms. Recommendations for future model–measurement evaluation and model improvements are provided.

A global analysis of climate-relevant aerosol properties retrieved from the network of Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) near-surface observatories

Laj, P.; Bigi, A.; Rose, C.; Andrews, E.; Lund Myhre, C.; Collaud Coen, M.; Lin, Y.; Wiedensohler, A.; Schulz, M.; Ogren, J. A.; Fiebig, M.; Gliß, J.; Mortier, A.; Pandolfi, M.; Petäja, T.; Kim, S.-W.; Aas, W.; Putaud, J.-P.; Mayol-Bracero, O.; Keywood, M.; Labrador, L.; Aalto, P.; Ahlberg, E.; Alados Arboledas, L.; Alastuey, A.; Andrade, M.; Artíñano, B.; Ausmeel, S.; Arsov, T.; Asmi, E.; Backman, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Bastian, S.; Bath, O.; Beukes, J. P.; Brem, B. T.; Bukowiecki, N.; Conil, S.; Couret, C.; Day, D.; Dayantolis, W.; Degorska, A.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Fetfatzis, P.; Favez, O.; Flentje, H.; Gini, M. I.; Gregorič, A.; Gysel-Beer, M.; Hallar, A. G.; Hand, J.; Hoffer, A.; Hueglin, C.; Hooda, R. K.; Hyvärinen, A.; Kalapov, I.; Kalivitis, N.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Kim, J. E.; Kouvarakis, G.; Kranjc, I.; Krejci, R.; Kulmala, M.; Labuschagne, C.; Lee, H.-J.; Lihavainen, H.; Lin, N.-H.; Löschau, G.; Luoma, K.; Marinoni, A.; Martins Dos Santos, S.; Meinhardt, F.; Merkel, M.; Metzger, J.-M.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Nguyen, N. A.; Ondracek, J.; Pérez, N.; Perrone, M. R.; Petit, J.-E.; Picard, D.; Pichon, J.-M.; Pont, V.; Prats, N.; Prenni, A.; Reisen, F.; Romano, S.; Sellegri, K.; Sharma, S.; Schauer, G.; Sheridan, P.; Sherman, J. P.; Schütze, M.; Schwerin, A.; Sohmer, R.; Sorribas, M.; Steinbacher, M.; Sun, J.; Titos, G.; Toczko, B.; Tuch, T.; Tulet, P.; Tunved, P.; Vakkari, V.; Velarde, F.; Velasquez, P.; Villani, P.; Vratolis, S.; Wang, S.-H.; Weinhold, K.; Weller, R.; Yela, M.; Yus-Diez, J.; Zdimal, V.; Zieger, P.; and Zikova, N.
2020 | Atmos. Meas. Tech. | 13 (4353-4392)

Aerosol particles are essential constituents of the Earth's atmosphere, impacting the earth radiation balance directly by scattering and absorbing solar radiation, and indirectly by acting as cloud condensation nuclei. In contrast to most greenhouse gases, aerosol particles have short atmospheric residence times, resulting in a highly heterogeneous distribution in space and time. There is a clear need to document this variability at regional scale through observations involving, in particular, the in situ near-surface segment of the atmospheric observation system. This paper will provide the widest effort so far to document variability of climate-relevant in situ aerosol properties (namely wavelength dependent particle light scattering and absorption coefficients, particle number concentration and particle number size distribution) from all sites connected to the Global Atmosphere Watch network. High-quality data from almost 90 stations worldwide have been collected and controlled for quality and are reported for a reference year in 2017, providing a very extended and robust view of the variability of these variables worldwide. The range of variability observed worldwide for light scattering and absorption coefficients, single-scattering albedo, and particle number concentration are presented together with preliminary information on their long-term trends and comparison with model simulation for the different stations. The scope of the present paper is also to provide the necessary suite of information, including data provision procedures, quality control and analysis, data policy, and usage of the ground-based aerosol measurement network. It delivers to users of the World Data Centre on Aerosol, the required confidence in data products in the form of a fully characterized value chain, including uncertainty estimation and requirements for contributing to the global climate monitoring system.

Multidecadal trend analysis of in situ aerosol radiative properties around the world

Collaud Coen, M.; Andrews, E.; Alastuey, A.; Arsov, T. P.; Backman, J.; Brem, B. T.; Bukowiecki, N.; Couret, C.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Flentje, H.; Fiebig, M.; Gysel-Beer, M.; Hand, J. L.; Hoffer, A.; Hooda, R.; Hueglin, C.; Joubert, W.; Keywood, M.; Kim, J. E.; Kim, S.-W.; Labuschagne, C.; Lin, N.-H.; Lin, Y.; Lund Myhre, C.; Luoma, K.; Lyamani, H.; Marinoni, A.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Pandolfi, M.; Prats, N.; Prenni, A. J.; Putaud, J.-P.; Ries, L.; Reisen, F.; Sellegri, K.; Sharma, S.; Sheridan, P.; Sherman, J. P.; Sun, J.; Titos, G.; Torres, E.; Tuch, T.; Weller, R.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zieger, P.; Laj, P.
2020 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 20 (8867-8908)

In order to assess the evolution of aerosol parameters affecting climate change, a long-term trend analysis of aerosol optical properties was performed on time series from 52 stations situated across five continents. The time series of measured scattering, backscattering and absorption coefficients as well as the derived single scattering albedo, backscattering fraction, scattering and absorption Ångström exponents covered at least 10 years and up to 40 years for some stations. The non-parametric seasonal Mann–Kendall (MK) statistical test associated with several pre-whitening methods and with Sen's slope was used as the main trend analysis method. Comparisons with general least mean square associated with autoregressive bootstrap (GLS/ARB) and with standard least mean square analysis (LMS) enabled confirmation of the detected MK statistically significant trends and the assessment of advantages and limitations of each method. Currently, scattering and backscattering coefficient trends are mostly decreasing in Europe and North America and are not statistically significant in Asia, while polar stations exhibit a mix of increasing and decreasing trends. A few increasing trends are also found at some stations in North America and Australia. Absorption coefficient time series also exhibit primarily decreasing trends. For single scattering albedo, 52 % of the sites exhibit statistically significant positive trends, mostly in Asia, eastern/northern Europe and the Arctic, 22 % of sites exhibit statistically significant negative trends, mostly in central Europe and central North America, while the remaining 26 % of sites have trends which are not statistically significant. In addition to evaluating trends for the overall time series, the evolution of the trends in sequential 10-year segments was also analyzed. For scattering and backscattering, statistically significant increasing 10-year trends are primarily found for earlier periods (10-year trends ending in 2010–2015) for polar stations and Mauna Loa. For most of the stations, the present-day statistically significant decreasing 10-year trends of the single scattering albedo were preceded by not statistically significant and statistically significant increasing 10-year trends. The effect of air pollution abatement policies in continental North America is very obvious in the 10-year trends of the scattering coefficient – there is a shift to statistically significant negative trends in 2009–2012 for all stations in the eastern and central USA. This long-term trend analysis of aerosol radiative properties with a broad spatial coverage provides insight into potential aerosol effects on climate changes.

Physical and chemical properties of aerosol particles and cloud residuals on Mt. Åreskutan in Central Sweden during summer 2014

Emelie Linnéa Graham; Paul Zieger; Claudia Mohr; Ulla Wideqvist; Tabea Hennig; Annica M. L. Ekman; Radovan Krejci; Johan Ström; lona Riipinen
2020 | Tellus Ser. B-Chem. Phys. Meteorol. | 72 (1) (1-16)

The size distribution, volatility and hygroscopicity of ambient aerosols and cloud residuals were measured with a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) and a volatility–hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyser (VHTDMA) coupled to a counterflow virtual impactor (CVI) inlet during the Cloud and Aerosol
Experiment at Åre (CAEsAR) campaign at Mt. Åreskutan during summer 2014. The chemical composition
of particulate matter (PM) and cloud water were analysed offline using thermo-optical OC/EC analysis and ion chromatography. The importance of aerosol particle size for cloud droplet activation and subsequent particle scavenging was clearly visible in the measured size distributions. Cloud residuals were shifted towards larger sizes compared to ambient aerosol, and the cloud events were followed by a size distribution
dominated by smaller particles. Organics dominated both PM (62% organic mass fraction) and cloud water (63% organic mass fraction) composition. The volatility and hygroscopicity of the ambient aerosols were representative of homogeneous aged aerosol with contributions from biogenic secondary organics, with
median volume fraction remaining (VFR) of 0.04–0.05, and median hygroscopicity parameter j of 0.16–0.24 for 100–300 nm particles. The corresponding VFR and j for the cloud residuals were 0.03–0.04 and 0.18–0.20. The chemical composition, hygroscopicity and volatility measurements thus showed no major
differences between the ambient aerosol particles and cloud residuals. The VFR and j values predicted based on the chemical composition measurements agreed well with the VHTDMA measurements, indicating the bulk chemical composition to be a reasonable approximation throughout the size distribution. There were
indications, however, of some more subtle changes in time scales not achievable by the offline chemical analysis applied here. Further, online observations of aerosol and cloud residual chemical composition are therefore warranted.

The MILAN campaign: Studying diel light effects on the air-sea interface

Christian Stolle; Mariana Ribas-Ribas; Thomas H. Badewien; Jonathan Barnes; Lucy J. Carpenter; Rosie Chance; Lars Riis Damgaard; Ana María Durán Quesada; Anja Engel; Sanja Frka; Luisa Galgani; Blaženka Gašparović; Michaela Gerriets; Nur Ili Hamizah Mustaffa; Hartmut Herrmann; Liisa Kallajoki; Ryan Pereira; Franziska Radach; Niels Peter Revsbech; Philippa Rickard; Adam Saint; Matthew Salter; Maren Striebel; Nadja Triesch; Guenther Uher; Robert C. Upstill-Goddard; Manuela Van Pinxteren; Birthe Zäncker; Paul Zieger; Oliver Wurl
2020 | Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. | 101 (2) (E146-E166)

The sea surface microlayer (SML) at the air–sea interface is <1 mm thick, but it is physically, chemically, and biologically distinct from the underlying water and the atmosphere above. Wind-driven turbulence and solar radiation are important drivers of SML physical and biogeochemical properties. Given that the SML is involved in all air–sea exchanges of mass and energy, its response to solar radiation, especially in relation to how it regulates the air–sea exchange of climate-relevant gases and aerosols, is surprisingly poorly characterized. MILAN (Sea Surface Microlayer at Night) was an international, multidisciplinary campaign designed to specifically address this issue. In spring 2017, we deployed diverse sampling platforms (research vessels, radio-controlled catamaran, free-drifting buoy) to study full diel cycles in the coastal North Sea SML and in underlying water, and installed a land-based aerosol sampler. We also carried out concurrent ex situ experiments using several microsensors, a laboratory gas exchange tank, a solar simulator, and a sea spray simulation chamber. In this paper we outline the diversity of approaches employed and some initial results obtained during MILAN. Our observations of diel SML variability show, for example, an influence of (i) changing solar radiation on the quantity and quality of organic material and (ii) diel changes in wind intensity primarily forcing air–sea CO2 exchange. Thus, MILAN underlines the value and the need of multidiciplinary campaigns for integrating SML complexity into the context of air–sea interaction.

Fostering multidisciplinary research on interactions between chemistry, biology, and physics within the coupled cryosphere-atmosphere system

Thomas, J.L.; Stutz, J.; Frey, M.M.; Bartels-Rausch, T.; Altieri, K.; Baladima, F.; Browse, J.; Dall’Osto, M.; Marelle, L.; Mouginot, J.; Murphy, J.G.; Nomura, D.; Pratt, K.A.; Willis, M.D.; Zieger, P.; Abbatt, J.; Douglas, T.A.; Facchini, M.C.; France, J.; Jones, A.E.; Kim, K.; Matrai, P.A.; McNeill, V.F.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Shepson, P.; Steiner, N.; Law, K.S.; Arnold, S.R.; Delille, B.; Schmale, J.; Sonke, J.E.; Dommergue, A.; Voisin, D.; Melamed, M.L.; Gier, J.
2019 | Elementa - Science of the Anthropocene | 7 (1)

The cryosphere, which comprises a large portion of Earth’s surface, is rapidly changing as a consequence of global climate change. Ice, snow, and frozen ground in the polar and alpine regions of the planet are known to directly impact atmospheric composition, which for example is observed in the large influence of ice and snow on polar boundary layer chemistry. Atmospheric inputs to the cryosphere, including aerosols, nutrients, and contaminants, are also changing in the anthropocene thus driving cryosphere-atmosphere feedbacks whose understanding is crucial for understanding future climate. Here, we present the Cryosphere and ATmospheric Chemistry initiative (CATCH) which is focused on developing new multidisciplinary research approaches studying interactions of chemistry, biology, and physics within the coupled cryosphere – atmosphere system and their sensitivity to environmental change. We identify four key science areas: (1) micro-scale processes in snow and ice, (2) the coupled cryosphere-atmosphere system, (3) cryospheric change and feedbacks, and (4) improved decisions and stakeholder engagement. To pursue these goals CATCH will foster an international, multidisciplinary research community, shed light on new research needs, support the acquisition of new knowledge, train the next generation of leading scientists, and establish interactions between the science community and society.

Influence of Organic Acids on the Surface Composition of Sea Spray Aerosol

Isaak Unger; Clara-Magdalena Saak; Matthew Salter; Paul Zieger; Minna Patanen; Olle Björneholm

Recent studies on sea spray aerosol indicate an enrichment of Ca2+ in small particles, which are often thought to originate from the very surface of a water body when bubbles burst. One model to explain this observation is the formation of ion pairs between Ca2+(aq) and surface-active organic species. In this study, we have used X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to probe aqueous salt solutions and artificial sea spray aerosol to study whether ion pairing in the liquid environment also affects the surface composition of dry aerosol. Carboxylic acids were added to the sample solutions to mimic some of the organic compounds present in natural seawater. Our results show that the formation of a core–shell structure governs the surface composition of the aerosol. The core–shell structure contrasts previous observations of the dry sea spray aerosol on substrates. As such, this may indicate that substrates can impact the morphology of the dried aerosol.

The radiative impact of out-of-cloud aerosol hygroscopic growth during the summer monsoon in southern West Africa

Haslett, S. L.; Taylor, J. W.; Deetz, K.; Vogel, B.; Babić, K.; Kalthoff, N.; Wieser, A.; Dione, C.; Lohou, F.; Brito, J.; Dupuy, R.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Zieger, P.; Coe, H.
2019 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 19 (1505-1520)

Water in the atmosphere can exist in the solid, liquid or gas phase. At high humidities, if the aerosol population remains constant, more water vapour will condense onto the particles and cause them to swell, sometimes up to several times their original size. This significant change in size and chemical composition is termed hygroscopic growth and alters a particle's optical properties. Even in unsaturated conditions, this can change the aerosol direct effect, for example by increasing the extinction of incoming sunlight. This can have an impact on a region's energy balance and affect visibility. Here, aerosol and relative humidity measurements collected from aircraft and radiosondes during the Dynamics–Aerosol–Chemistry–Cloud Interactions in West Africa (DACCIWA) campaign were used to estimate the effect of highly humid layers of air on aerosol optical properties during the monsoon season in southern West Africa. The effects of hygroscopic growth in this region are of particular interest due to the regular occurrence of high humidity and the high levels of pollution in the region. The Zdanovskii, Stokes and Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule is used to estimate the hygroscopic growth of particles under different conditions based on chemical composition. These results are used to estimate the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at λ=525 nm for 63 relative humidity profiles. The median AOD in the region from these calculations was 0.36, the same as that measured by sun photometers at the ground site. The spread in the calculated AODs was less than the spread from the sun photometer measurements. In both cases, values above 0.5 were seen predominantly in the mornings and corresponded with high humidities. Observations of modest variations in aerosol load and composition are unable to explain the high and variable AODs observed using sun photometers, which can only be recreated by accounting for the very elevated and variable relative humidities (RHs) in the boundary layer. Most importantly, the highest AODs present in the mornings are not possible without the presence of high RH in excess of 95 %. Humid layers are found to have the most significant impact on AOD when they reach RH greater than 98 %, which can result in a wet AOD more than 1.8 times the dry AOD. Unsaturated humid layers were found to reach these high levels of RH in 37 % of observed cases. It can therefore be concluded that the high AODs present across the region are driven by the high humidities and are then moderated by changes in aerosol abundance. Aerosol concentrations in southern West Africa are projected to increase substantially in the coming years; results presented here show that the presence of highly humid layers in the region is likely to enhance the consequent effect on AOD significantly.

Interactions between the atmosphere, cryosphere, and ecosystems at northern high latitudes

Boy, M; Thomson, ES; Navarro, JCA; Arnalds, O; Batchvarova, E; Back, J; Berninger, F; Bilde, M; Brasseur, Z; Dagsson-Waldhauserova, P; Castarede, D; Dalirian, M; de Leeuw, G; Dragosics, M; Duplissy, EM; Duplissy, J; Ekman, AML; Fang, KY; Gallet, JC; Glasius, M; Gryning, SE; Grythe, H; Hansson, HC; Hansson, M; Isaksson, E; Iversen, T; Jonsdottir, I; Kasurinen, V; Kirkevag, A; Korhola, A; Krejci, R; Kristjansson, JE; Lappalainen, HK; Lauri, A; Lepparanta, M; Lihavainen, H; Makkonen, R; Massling, A; Meinander, O; Nilsson, ED; Olafsson, H; Pettersson, JBC; Prisle, NL; Riipinen, I; Roldin, P; Ruppel, M; Salter, M; Sand, M; Seland, O; Seppa, H; Skov, H; Soares, J; Stohl, A; Strom, J; Svensson, J; Swietlicki, E; Tabakova, K; Thorsteinsson, T; Virkkula, A; Weyhenmeyer, GA; Wu, YS; Zieger, P; Kulmala, M
2019 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 19 (3) (2015-2061)
aerosol-climate interactions , biogenic volatile emissions , black carbon deposition , boreal forest , cloud droplet activation , earth system model , elemental carbon , eurasian experiment peex , organic compounds , sea-ice conditions

The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere-Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011-2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date, aiming to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. CRAICC gathered more than 100 scientists from all Nordic countries in a virtual centre with the objectives of identifying and quantifying the major processes controlling Arctic warming and related feedback mechanisms, outlining strategies to mitigate Arctic warming, and developing Nordic Earth system modelling with a focus on short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), including natural and anthropogenic aerosols. The outcome of CRAICC is reflected in more than 150 peer-reviewed scientific publications, most of which are in the CRAICC special issue of the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. This paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated in the centre and provides the reader with a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC with links to the particular publications for further detail. Faced with a vast amount of scientific discovery, we do not claim to completely summarize the results from CRAICC within this paper, but rather concentrate here on the main results which are related to feedback loops in climate change-cryosphere interactions that affect Arctic amplification.

Chemical composition and source analysis of carbonaceous aerosol particles at a mountaintop site in central Sweden

Vera Franke; Paul Zieger; Ulla Wideqvist; Juan Camilo Acosta Navarro; Caroline Leck; Peter Tunved; Bernadette Rosati; Martin Gysel; Matthew Salter; Johan Ström
2017 | Tellus Ser. B-Chem. Phys. Meteorol. | 69 (1)

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