Fast Quantification of Chlorinated Paraffins in Environmental Samples by Direct Injection High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry with Pattern Deconvolution

Bogdal, C.; Alsberg, T.; Diefenbacher, P.S.; MacLeod, M.; Berger, U.
2015 | Anal. Chem. | 87 (2852-2860)

Comment on “Unexpected Occurrence of Volatile Dimethylsiloxanes in Antarctic Soils, Vegetation, Phytoplankton, and Krill”

Mackay, D.; Gobas, F.; Solomon, K.; MacLeod, M.; McLachlan, M.; Powell, D.E.; Xu, S.
2015 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 49 (7507-7509)

Differences between lipids extracted from five species are not sufficient to explain biomagnification of non-polar organic chemicals

Jahnke, A.; Holmbäck, J.; Andersson, R.A.; Kierkegaard, A.; Mayer, P.; MacLeod, M.
2015 | Environ. Sci. Technol.

Enhanced Elimination of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate by Menstruating Women: Evidence from Population-based Pharmacokinetic Modeling

Wong, F.; MacLeod, M.; Mueller, J.F.; Cousins, I.T.
2014 | Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)

SETAC North America 35th Annual Meeting | February 3, 2023 | Vancouver, Canada

Equilibrium Sampling to Determine the Thermodynamic Potential for Bioaccumulation of Persistent Organic Pollutants from Sediment

Jahnke, A.; MacLeod, M.; Wickström, H.; Mayer, P.
2014 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 48

Equilibrium partitioning (EqP) theory is currently the most widely used approach for linking sediment pollution by persistent hydrophobic organic chemicals to bioaccumulation. Most applications of the EqP approach assume (I) a generic relationship between organic carbon-normalized chemical concentrations in sediments and lipid-normalized concentrations in biota and (II) that bioaccumulation does not induce levels exceeding those expected from equilibrium partitioning. Here, we demonstrate that assumption I can be obviated by equilibrating a silicone sampler with chemicals in sediment, measuring chemical concentrations in the silicone, and applying lipid/silicone partition ratios to yield concentrations in lipid at thermodynamic equilibrium with the sediment (CLip⇌Sed). Furthermore, we evaluated the validity of assumption II by comparing CLip⇌Sed of selected persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic pollutants (polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB)) to lipid-normalized concentrations for a range of biota from a Swedish background lake. PCBs in duck mussels, roach, eel, pikeperch, perch and pike were mostly below the equilibrium partitioning level relative to the sediment, i.e., lipid-normalized concentrations were ≤CLip⇌Sed, whereas HCB was near equilibrium between biota and sediment. Equilibrium sampling allows straightforward, sensitive and precise measurement of CLip⇌Sed. We propose CLip⇌Sed as a metric of the thermodynamic potential for bioaccumulation of persistent organic chemicals from sediment useful to prioritize management actions to remediate contaminated sites.

Long-term temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) at global atmospheric monitoring stations including in the Arctic: effectiveness of control strategies and possible influence of climate change.

Kong, D.; MacLeod, M.; Hung, H.; Cousins, I.T.
2014 | SU

Arctic Frontiers 2014 – Humans in the Arctic | February 3, 2023 | Tromsö, Norway

Identifying Chemicals That Are Planetary Boundary Threats

2014 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 48 (11057-11063)

Rockström et al. proposed a set of planetary boundaries that delimit a “safe operating space for humanity”. Many of the planetary boundaries that have so far been identified are determined by chemical agents. Other chemical pollution-related planetary boundaries likely exist, but are currently unknown. A chemical poses an unknown planetary boundary threat if it simultaneously fulfills three conditions: (1) it has an unknown disruptive effect on a vital Earth system process; (2) the disruptive effect is not discovered until it is a problem at the global scale, and (3) the effect is not readily reversible. In this paper, we outline scenarios in which chemicals could fulfill each of the three conditions, then use the scenarios as the basis to define chemical profiles that fit each scenario. The chemical profiles are defined in terms of the nature of the effect of the chemical and the nature of exposure of the environment to the chemical. Prioritization of chemicals in commerce against some of the profiles appears feasible, but there are considerable uncertainties and scientific challenges that must be addressed. Most challenging is prioritizing chemicals for their potential to have a currently unknown effect on a vital Earth system process. We conclude that the most effective strategy currently available to identify chemicals that are planetary boundary threats is prioritization against profiles defined in terms of environmental exposure combined with monitoring and study of the biogeochemical processes that underlie vital Earth system processes to identify currently unknown disruptive effects.

Chemical benchmarking to determine the persistence of pharmaceuticals in a Swedish lake.

Hongyan Zou; Michael Radke; Amelie Kierkegaard; Matthew MacLeod; Michael S. McLachlan
2014 | Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)

SETAC Europe 24th | May 11, 2014 | Basel, Switzerland

PCBs in a changing Arctic: Towards understanding their input, transfer and uptake into Arctic biota and humans under climate change – A case study within the ArcRisk-project.

Brorström-Lundén, E.; Munthe, J.; Halsall, C.; Kallenborn, R.; MacLeod, M.; Cousins, I.T.; Wöhrnschimmel, H.; Rautio, A.
2014 | SU

Arctic Frontiers 2014 – Humans in the Arctic | February 3, 2023 | Tromsø, Norway

Emissions of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Zurich, Switzerland, determined by a combination of measurements and modeling

Christian Bogdal; Zhanyun Wang; Andreas M Buser; Martin Scheringer; Andreas C Gerecke; Peter Schmid; Claudia E Mueller; Matthew MacLeod; Konrad Hungerbuehler
2014 | Chemosphere | 116 (15-23)

Silicone passive equilibrium samplers as ‘chemometers’ in eels and sediments of a Swedish lake

Annika Jahnke; Philipp Mayer; Michael S. McLachlan; Håkan Wickström; Dorothea Gilbert; Matthew MacLeod
2014 | J Environ Monit | 14 (464-472)

Passive equilibrium samplers deployed in two or more media of a system and allowed to come to equilibrium can be viewed as ‘chemometers’ that reflect the difference in chemical activities of contaminants between the media. We applied silicone-based equilibrium samplers to measure relative chemical activities of seven ‘indicator’ polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and hexachlorobenzene in eels and sediments from a Swedish lake. Chemical concentrations in eels and sediments were also measured using exhaustive extraction methods. Lipid-normalized concentrations in eels were higher than organic carbon-normalized concentrations in sediments, with biota–sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) of five PCBs ranging from 2.7 to 12.7. In contrast, chemical activities of the same pollutants inferred by passive sampling were 3.5 to 31.3 times lower in eels than in sediments. The apparent contradiction between BSAFs and activity ratios is consistent with the sorptive capacity of lipids exceeding that of sediment organic carbon from this ecosystem by up to 50-fold. Factors that may contribute to the elevated activity in sediments are discussed, including slower response of sediments than water to reduced emissions, sediment diagenesis and sorption to phytoplankton. The ‘chemometer’ approach has the potential to become a powerful tool to study the thermodynamic controls on persistent organic chemicals in the environment and should be extended to other environmental compartments.

Pooled biological specimens for human biomonitoring of environmental chemicals: Opportunities and limitations

Amy L Heffernan; Lesa L Aylward; Leisa-Maree L Toms; Peter D Sly; Matthew Macleod; Jochen F Mueller
2014 | J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol | 24 (225-232)

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