Unexpectedly large impact of forest management and grazing on global vegetation biomass
Erb, K.-H.; Kastner, T.; Plutzar, C.; Bais, A.L.S.; Carvalhais, N.; Fetzel, T.; Gingrich, S.; Haberl, H.; Lauk, C.; Niedertscheider, M.; Pongratz, J.; Thurner, M.; Luyssaert, S.
Carbon stocks in vegetation have a key role in the climate system1,2,3,4. However, the magnitude, patterns and uncertainties of carbon stocks and the effect of land use on the stocks remain poorly quantified. Here we show, using state-of-the-art datasets, that vegetation currently stores around 450 petagrams of carbon. In the hypothetical absence of land use, potential vegetation would store around 916 petagrams of carbon, under current climate conditions. This difference highlights the massive effect of land use on biomass stocks. Deforestation and other land-cover changes are responsible for 53–58% of the difference between current and potential biomass stocks. Land management effects (the biomass stock changes induced by land use within the same land cover) contribute 42–47%, but have been underestimated in the literature. Therefore, avoiding deforestation is necessary but not sufficient for mitigation of climate change. Our results imply that trade-offs exist between conserving carbon stocks on managed land and raising the contribution of biomass to raw material and energy supply for the mitigation of climate change. Efforts to raise biomass stocks are currently verifiable only in temperate forests, where their potential is limited. By contrast, large uncertainties hinder verification in the tropical forest, where the largest potential is located, pointing to challenges for the upcoming stocktaking exercises under the Paris agreement.
A call for action: Improve reporting of research studies to increase the scientific basis for regulatory decision‐making
Marlene Ågerstrand; Sofie Christiansen; Annika Hanberg; Christina Rudén; Lars Andersson; Sjur Andersen; Henrik Appelgren; Christine Bjørge; Ian Henning Clausen; Dag Markus Eide; Nanna B. Hartmann; Trine Husøy; Halldór Pálmar Halldórsson; Marianne van der Hagen; Ellen Ingre‐Khans; Adam David Lillicrap; Vibe Meister Beltoft; Anna‐Karin Mörk; Mari Murtomaa‐Hautala; Elsa Nielsen; Kristín Ólafsdóttir; Jaana Palomäki; Hinni Papponen; Emilie Marie Reiler; Helene Stockmann‐Juvala; Tiina Suutari; Henrik Tyle; Anna Beronius
| J Appl Toxicol
This is a call for action to scientific journals to introduce reporting requirements for toxicity and
ecotoxicity studies. Such reporting requirements will support the use of peer‐reviewed research
studies in regulatory decision‐making. Moreover, this could improve the reliability and reproducibility
of published studies in general and make better use of the resources spent in research.
The Essential Elements of a Risk Governance Framework for Current and Future Nanotechnologies
Societies worldwide are investing considerable resources into the safe development and use
of nanomaterials. Although each of these protective efforts is crucial for governing the risks
of nanomaterials, they are insufficient in isolation. What is missing is a more integrative governance
approach that goes beyond legislation. Development of this approach must be evidence
based and involve key stakeholders to ensure acceptance by end users. The challenge is
to develop a framework that coordinates the variety of actors involved in nanotechnology and
civil society to facilitate consideration of the complex issues that occur in this rapidly evolving
research and development area. Here, we propose three sets of essential elements required
to generate an effective risk governance framework for nanomaterials. (1) Advanced tools to
facilitate risk-based decision making, including an assessment of the needs of users regarding
risk assessment, mitigation, and transfer. (2) An integrated model of predicted human behavior
and decision making concerning nanomaterial risks. (3) Legal and other (nano-specific
and general) regulatory requirements to ensure compliance and to stimulate proactive approaches
to safety. The implementation of such an approach should facilitate and motivate
good practice for the various stakeholders to allow the safe and sustainable future development
Facing the rain after the phase out: Performance evaluation of alternative fluorinated and non-fluorinated durable water repellents for outdoor fabrics
The environmental cycling of mercury (Hg) can be affected by natural and anthropogenic perturbations. Of particular concern is how these disruptions increase mobilization of Hg from sites and alter the formation of monomethylmercury (MeHg), a bioaccumulative form of Hg for humans and wildlife. The scientific community has made significant advances in recent years in understanding the processes contributing to the risk of MeHg in the environment. The objective of this paper is to synthesize the scientific understanding of how Hg cycling in the aquatic environment is influenced by landscape perturbations at the local scale, perturbations that include watershed loadings, deforestation, reservoir and wetland creation, rice production, urbanization, mining and industrial point source pollution, and remediation. We focus on the major challenges associated with each type of alteration, as well as management opportunities that could lessen both MeHg levels in biota and exposure to humans. For example, our understanding of approximate response times to changes in Hg inputs from various sources or landscape alterations could lead to policies that prioritize the avoidance of certain activities in the most vulnerable systems and sequestration of Hg in deep soil and sediment pools. The remediation of Hg pollution from historical mining and other industries is shifting towards in situ technologies that could be less disruptive and less costly than conventional approaches. Contemporary artisanal gold mining has well-documented impacts with respect to Hg; however, significant social and political challenges remain in implementing effective policies to minimize Hg use. Much remains to be learned as we strive towards the meaningful application of our understanding for stakeholders, including communities living near Hg-polluted sites, environmental policy makers, and scientists and engineers tasked with developing watershed management solutions. Site-specific assessments of MeHg exposure risk will require new methods to predict the impacts of anthropogenic perturbations and an understanding of the complexity of Hg cycling at the local scale.
Formation of atmospheric molecular clusters consisting of sulfuric acid and C8H12O6 tricarboxylic acid
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine disruptor frequently detected in human biofluids. Dermal absorption of BPA from thermal paper receipts occurs but BPA pharmacokinetics following dermal exposure is not understood. To compare the pharmacokinetics of dermal and dietary BPA exposure, six male participants handled simulated receipts containing relevant levels of BPA (isotope-labeled BPA-d(16)) for 5 min, followed by hand-washing 2 h later. Urine (0-48 h) and serum (0-7.5 h) were monitored for free and total BPA-d16. One week later, participants returned for a dietary administration with monitoring as above. One participant repeated the dermal administration with extended monitoring of urine (9 days) and serum (2 days). After dietary exposure, urine total BPA-d16 peaked within 5 h and quickly cleared within 24 h. After dermal exposure, cumulative excretion increased linearly for 2 days, and half the participants still had detectable urinary total BPA-d(16) after 1 week. The participant repeating the dermal exposure had detectable BPA-d(16) in urine for 9 days, showed linear cumulative excretion over 5 days, and had detectable free BPA-d(16) in serum. Proportions of free BPA-d(16) in urine following dermal exposure (0.71%-8.3% of total BPA-d(16)) were generally higher than following the dietary exposure (0.29%-1.4%). Compared to dietary BPA exposure, dermal absorption of BPA leads to prolonged exposure and may lead to higher proportions of unconjugated BPA in systemic circulation.
Arctic sea ice melt leads to atmospheric new particle formation.