Long-term exposure to particulate air pollution and black carbon in relation to natural and cause-specific mortality: a multicohort study in Sweden

Nilsson Sommar, Johan; Andersson, Eva M; Andersson, Niklas; Sallsten, Gerd; Stockfelt, Leonard; Ljungman, Petter LS; Segersson, David; Eneroth, Kristina; Gidhagen, Lars; Molnar, Peter; Wennberg, Patrik; Rosengren, Annika; Rizzuto, Debora; Leander, Karin; Lager, Anton; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Johansson, C.; Barregard, Lars; Bellander, Tom; Pershagen, Göran; Forsberg, Bertil
2021 | 11

Objectives To estimate concentration–response relationships for particulate matter (PM) and black carbon (BC) in relation to mortality in cohorts from three Swedish cities with comparatively low pollutant levels.

Setting Cohorts from Gothenburg, Stockholm and Umeå, Sweden.

Design High-resolution dispersion models were used to estimate annual mean concentrations of PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 µm (PM10) and ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5), and BC, at individual addresses during each year of follow-up, 1990–2011. Moving averages were calculated for the time windows 1–5 years (lag1–5) and 6–10 years (lag6–10) preceding the outcome. Cause-specific mortality data were obtained from the national cause of death registry. Cohort-specific HRs were estimated using Cox regression models and then meta-analysed including a random effect of cohort.

Participants During the study period, 7 340 cases of natural mortality, 2 755 cases of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and 817 cases of respiratory and lung cancer mortality were observed among in total 68 679 individuals and 689 813 person-years of follow-up.

Results Both PM10 (range: 6.3–41.9 µg/m3) and BC (range: 0.2–6.8 µg/m3) were associated with natural mortality showing 17% (95% CI 6% to 31%) and 9% (95% CI 0% to 18%) increased risks per 10 µg/m3 and 1 µg/m3 of lag1-5 exposure, respectively. For PM2.5 (range: 4.0–22.4 µg/m3), the estimated increase was 13% per 5 µg/m3, but less precise (95% CI −9% to 40%). Estimates for CVD mortality appeared higher for both PM10 and PM2.5. No association was observed with respiratory mortality.

Conclusion The results support an effect of long-term air pollution on natural mortality and mortality in CVD with high relative risks also at low exposure levels. These findings are relevant for future decisions concerning air quality policies.

Environmental Sources, Chemistry, Fate and Transport of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances: State of the Science, Key Knowledge Gaps, and Recommendations Presented at the August 2019 SETAC Focus Topic Meeting

Guelfo, J.L.; Korzeniowski, S.; Mills, M.A.; Anderson, J.; Anderson, R.H.; Arblaster, J.A.; Conder, J.M.; Cousins, I.T.; Dasu, K.; Henry, B.J.; Lee, L.S.; Liu, J.; McKenzie, E.R.; Willey J.
2021 | Environ. Toxicol. Chem. | 40 (12) (3234-3260)

The SALTENA experiment: Comprehensive observations of aerosol sources, formation and processes in the South American Andes

Federico Bianchi; Victoria A. Sinclair; Diego Aliaga; Qiaozhi Zha; Wiebke Scholz; Cheng Wu; Liine Heikkinen; Rob Modini; Eva Partoll; Fernando Velarde; Isabel Moreno; Yvette Gramlich; Wei Huang; Markus Leiminger; Joonas Enroth; Otso Peräkylä; Angela Marinoni; Chen Xuemeng; Luis Blacutt; Ricardo Forno; Rene Gutierrez; Patrick Ginot; Gaëlle Uzu; Maria Cristina Facchini; Stefania Gilardoni; Martin Gysel-Beer; Runlong Cai; Tuukka Petäjä; Matteo Rinaldi; Harald Saathoff; Karine Sellegri; Douglas Worsnop; Paulo Artaxo; Armin Hansel; Markku Kulmala; Alfred Wiedensohler; Paolo Laj; Radovan Krejci; Samara Carbone; Marcos Andrade; Claudia Mohr
2021 | Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.

What is in Nigerian waters? Target and non-target screening analysis for organic chemicals

Hu, L-X.; Olaitan, O.J.; Li, Z.; Yang, Y-Y.; Chimezie, A.; Adepoju-Bello, A.A.; Ying, G-G.; Chen, C-E.
2021 | Chemosphere | 284

Micropollutants in four Brazilian water reservoirs

Quadra, G.R.; Li, Z.; Barros, N.; Roland, F.; Sobek, A.
2021 | Limnologica | 90

Wide-angle X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics simulations of supercooled protein hydration water

Maddalena Bin; Rafat Yousif; Sharon Berkowicz; Sudipta Das; Daniel Schlesinger; Fivos Perakis
2021 | Phys Chem Chem Phys

Understanding the mechanism responsible for the protein low-temperature crossover observed at T ≈ 220 K can help us improve current cryopreservation technologies. This crossover is associated with changes in the dynamics of the system, such as in the mean-squared displacement, whereas experimental evidence of structural changes is sparse. Here we investigate hydrated lysozyme proteins by using a combination of wide-angle X-ray scattering and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Experimentally we suppress crystallization by accurate control of the protein hydration level, which allows access to temperatures down to T = 175 K. The experimental data indicate that the scattering intensity peak at Q = 1.54 Å−1, attributed to interatomic distances, exhibits temperature-dependent changes upon cooling. In the MD simulations it is possible to decompose the water and protein contributions and we observe that, while the protein component is nearly temperature independent, the hydration water peak shifts in a fashion similar to that of bulk water. The observed trends are analysed by using the water–water and water-protein radial distribution functions, which indicate changes in the local probability density of hydration water.

The global threat from plastic pollution

Matthew MacLeod; Hans Peter H. Arp; Mine B. Tekman; Annika Jahnke
2021 | Science, 373 (6550) (61-65)

Plastic pollution accumulating in an area of the environment is considered “poorly reversible” if natural mineralization processes occurring there are slow and engineered remediation solutions are improbable. Should negative outcomes in these areas arise as a consequence of plastic pollution, they will be practically irreversible. Potential impacts from poorly reversible plastic pollution include changes to carbon and nutrient cycles; habitat changes within soils, sediments, and aquatic ecosystems; co-occurring biological impacts on endangered or keystone species; ecotoxicity; and related societal impacts. The rational response to the global threat posed by accumulating and poorly reversible plastic pollution is to rapidly reduce plastic emissions through reductions in consumption of virgin plastic materials, along with internationally coordinated strategies for waste management.

Major lead exposure from hunting ammunition in eagles from Sweden

Björn Helander; Oliver Krone; Jannikke Räikkönen; Marcus Sundbom; Erik Ågren; Anders Bignert
2021 | Sci. Total Environ. | 735

Exposure to lead (Pb) from ammunition in scavenging and raptorial birds has achieved worldwide recognition based on incidences of lethal poisoning, but exposure implies also sublethal levels with potential harmful effects. Background and elevated Pb levels in liver from 116 golden eagles (GE, Aquila chrysaetos) and 200 white-tailed Sea eagles (WTSE, Haliaeetus albicilla) from Sweden 2003–2011 are here examined, with supporting data from a previous WTSE report and eagle owl (EO, Bubu bubo) report. GE and WTSE display seasonal patterns, with no Pb level exceeding a generally accepted threshold for subclinical effects during summer but strongly elevated levels from October. Fledged juveniles show significantly lower levels than all other age classes, but reach levels found in older birds in autumn after the start of hunting seasons. Pb levels in EO (non-scavenger) show no seasonal changes and indicate no influence from ammunition, and are close to levels observed in juvenile eagles before October. In all, 15% WTSE and 7% GE were lethally poisoned. In areas with high-exposure to hunting ammunition, 24% of WTSE showed lethal Pb levels, compared to 7% in both eagle species from low-exposure areas. Lethal poisoning of WTSE remained as frequent after (15%) as before (13%) a partial ban on use of Pb-based shotgun ammunition over shallow waters (2002). Pb levels increased significantly in WTSE 1981–2011, in contrast to other biota from the same period. A significant decrease of Pb in WTSE liver occurred below a threshold at 0.25 μg/g (dry weight), exceeded by 81% of the birds. Trend patterns in Pb isotope ratios lend further support to this estimated cut-off level for environmental background concentrations. Pb from spent ammunition affects a range of scavenging and predatory species. A shift to Pb-free ammunition to save wildlife from unnecessary harm is an important environmental and ethical issue.

A health economic assessment of air pollution effects under climate neutral vehicle fleet scenarios in Stockholm, Sweden

Kriit, H.,; Nilsson Sommar, J.,; Forsberg, B.; Åström, S.; Svensson, M.; Johansson, C.

Finding essentiality feasible: common questions and misinterpretations concerning the “essential-use” concept

Cousins, I.T.; DeWitt, J.C.; Glüge, J.; Goldenman, G.; Herzke, D.; Lohmann, R.; Miller, M.; Ng, C.A.; Patton, S.; Scheringer, M.; Trier, X.; Vierke, L.; Wang, Z.; DeWitt, J.C.
2021 | Environ. Sci.-Process Impacts | 23 (1079-1087)

Near-Source Risk Functions for Particulate Matter Are Critical When Assessing the Health Benefits of Local Abatement Strategies

2021 | Int J Environ Res Public Health | 18

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