Association between Mortality and Short-Term Exposure to Particles, Ozone and Nitrogen Dioxide in Stockholm, Sweden
In this study, the effects on daily mortality in Stockholm associated with short-term exposure to ultrafine particles (measured as number of particles with a diameter larger than 4 nm, PNC4), black carbon (BC) and coarse particles (PM2.5–10) have been compared with the effects from more common traffic-pollution indicators (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2) and O3 during the period 2000–2016. Air pollution exposure was estimated from measurements at a 20 m high building in central Stockholm. The associations between daily mortality lagged up to two days (lag 02) and the different air pollutants were modelled by using Poisson regression. The pollutants with the strongest indications of an independent effect on daily mortality were O3, PM2.5–10 and PM10. In the single-pollutant model, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in O3 was associated with an increase in daily mortality of 2.0% (95% CI: 1.1–3.0) for lag 01 and 1.9% (95% CI: 1.0–2.9) for lag 02. An IQR increase in PM2.5–10 was associated with an increase in daily mortality of 0.8% (95% CI: 0.1–1.5) for lag 01 and 1.1% (95% CI: 0.4–1.8) for lag 02. PM10 was associated with a significant increase only at lag 02, with 0.8% (95% CI: 0.08–1.4) increase in daily mortality associated with an IQR increase in the concentration. NO2 exhibits negative associations with mortality. The significant excess risk associated with O3 remained significant in two-pollutant models after adjustments for PM2.5–10, BC and NO2. The significant excess risk associated with PM2.5–10 remained significant in a two-pollutant model after adjustment for NO2. The significantly negative associations for NO2 remained significant in two-pollutant models after adjustments for PM2.5–10, O3 and BC. A potential reason for these findings, where statistically significant excess risks were found for O3, PM2.5–10 and PM10, but not for NO2, PM2.5, PNC4 and BC, is behavioral factors that lead to misclassification in the exposure. The concentrations of O3 and PM2.5–10 are in general highest during sunny and dry days during the spring, when exposure to outdoor air tend to increase, while the opposite applies to NO2, PNC4 and BC, with the highest concentrations during the short winter days with cold weather, when people are less exposed to outdoor air.
Global transport of perfluoralkyl acids via sea spray aerosol
Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent organic pollutants found throughout the world's oceans. Previous
research suggests that long-range atmospheric transport of these substances may be substantial. However,
it remains unclear what the main sources of PFAAs to the atmosphere are. We have used a laboratory sea
spray chamber to study water-to-air transfer of 11 PFAAs via sea spray aerosol (SSA). We observed significant
enrichment of all PFAAs relative to sodium in the SSA generated. The highest enrichment was observed in
aerosols with aerodynamic diameter < 1.6 mm, which had aerosol PFAA concentrations up to 62 000 times
higher than the PFAA water concentrations in the chamber. In surface microlayer samples collected from
the sea spray chamber, the enrichment of the substances investigated was orders of magnitude smaller
than the enrichment observed in the aerosols. In experiments with mixtures of structural isomers,
a lower contribution of branched PFAA isomers was observed in the surface microlayer compared to the
bulk water. However, no clear trend was observed in the comparison of structural isomers in SSA and
bulk water. Using the measured enrichment factors of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane
sulfonic acid versus sodium we have estimated global annual emissions of these substances to the
atmosphere via SSA as well as their global annual deposition to land areas. Our experiments suggest that
SSA may currently be an important source of these substances to the atmosphere and, over certain
areas, to terrestrial environments.
Composition, isotopic fingerprint and source attribution of nitrate deposition from rain and fog at a Sub-Arctic Mountain site in Central Sweden (Mt Åreskutan)Download
Temporal constraints on lateral organic matter transport along a coastal mud beltDownload
Relationships between grain size and organic carbon 14C heterogeneity in continental margin sedimentsDownload
Sapwood biomass carbon in northern boreal and temperate forests
Information on the amount of carbon stored in the living tissue of tree stems (sapwood) is crucial for carbon and water cycle applications. Here, we aim to investigate sapwood‐to‐stem proportions and differences therein between tree genera and derive a sapwood biomass map.
Northern Hemisphere boreal and temperate forests.
Major taxa studied
Twenty‐five common tree genera.
First, we develop a theoretical framework to estimate sapwood biomass for a given stem biomass by applying relationships between sapwood cross‐sectional area (CSA) and stem CSA and between stem CSA and stem biomass. These measurements are extracted from a biomass and allometry database (BAAD), an extensive literature review and our own studies. The established allometric relationships are applied to a remote sensing‐based stem biomass product in order to derive a spatially continuous sapwood biomass map. The application of new products on the distribution of stand density and tree genera facilitates the synergy of satellite and forest inventory data.
Sapwood‐to‐stem CSA relationships can be modelled with moderate to very high modelling efficiency for different genera. The total estimated sapwood biomass equals 12.87 ± 6.56 petagrams of carbon (PgC) in boreal (mean carbon density: 1.13 ± 0.58 kgC m−2) and 15.80 ± 9.10 PgC in temperate (2.03 ± 1.17 kgC m−2) forests. Spatial patterns of sapwood‐to‐stem biomass proportions are crucially driven by the distribution of genera (spanning from 20–30% in Larix to > 70% in Pinus and Betula forests).
The presented sapwood biomass map will be the basis for large‐scale estimates of plant respiration and transpiration. The enormous spatial differences in sapwood biomass proportions reveal the need to consider the functionally more important sapwood instead of the entire stem biomass in global carbon and water cycle studies. Alterations in tree species distribution, induced by forest management or climate change, can strongly affect the available sapwood biomass even if stem biomass remains unchanged.
Interactions between the atmosphere, cryosphere and ecosystems at northern high latitudesDownload
The Nordic Centre of Excellence CRAICC (Cryosphere–Atmosphere Interactions in a Changing Arctic Climate), funded by NordForsk in the years 2011–2016, is the largest joint Nordic research and innovation initiative to date, aiming to strengthen research and innovation regarding climate change issues in the Nordic region. CRAICC gathered more than 100 scientists from all Nordic countries in a virtual centre with the objectives of identifying and quantifying the major processes controlling Arctic warming and related feedback mechanisms, outlining strategies to mitigate Arctic warming, and developing Nordic Earth system modelling with a focus on short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), including natural and anthropogenic aerosols.
The outcome of CRAICC is reflected in more than 150 peer-reviewed scientific publications, most of which are in the CRAICC special issue of the journal Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics. This paper presents an overview of the main scientific topics investigated in the centre and provides the reader with a state-of-the-art comprehensive summary of what has been achieved in CRAICC with links to the particular publications for further detail. Faced with a vast amount of scientific discovery, we do not claim to completely summarize the results from CRAICC within this paper, but rather concentrate here on the main results which are related to feedback loops in climate change–cryosphere interactions that affect Arctic amplification.