Associations between Vehicle Exhaust Particles and Ozone at Home Address and Birth Weight
We have studied the associations between exhaust particles and birth weight. Adjustments were made for ozone and potential confounding factors at the individual level. The study included all singletons conceived between August 2003 and February 2013 with mothers living in Greater Stockholm. We obtained record-based register data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Data concerning the parents were provided by Statistics Sweden. Exposure levels for nearly 187,000 pregnancies were calculated using a validated air quality dispersion model with input from a detailed emission database. A higher socioeconomic status was associated with higher levels of exhaust particles at the home address. In this region, with rather low air pollution levels, the associations between levels of exhaust particles and birth weight were negative for all three of the studied exposure windows (i.e., first and second trimester and full pregnancy). For the entire pregnancy, the linear decrease in birth weight was 7.5 grams (95% CI−12.0; −2.9) for an increase in exposure, corresponding to the inter quartile range (IQR = 209 ng/m3). We also found that the risk of being born small for gestational age increased with the level of exhaust particles in all three exposure windows, but these associations were not statistically significant.
Strategies for grouping per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances
The P-Sufficient Approach: why high persistence is a source of very high concern
The influence of perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAA) concentrations on the enrichment of PFAAs in sea spray aerosols (SSA) in a laboratory study
Observations on relations between marine aerosol fluxes and surface-generated noise in the southern Baltic Sea
This study presents the preliminary results of combining underwater acoustic am- bient noise measurements with those of in-situ sea spray fluxes (SSF). Hydroacoustic measure- ments (in the frequency range 80 Hz —12.5 kHz) were made using an underwater noise recording system developed at the Institute of Oceanology of the Polish Academy of Sciences which was then deployed in the southern Baltic Sea. The simultaneous measurements of coarse sea spray fluxes (with particle diameters ranging from 0.5 to 47 μm) were made on board the r/v Ocea- nia using the gradient method. Observations were conducted for the duration of the passage of an atmospheric front that lasted 2.5 days (60 hours of measurements). There were signif- icant differences in the sound pressure level (SPL) and aerosol fluxes observed between the first part of measurements (developing wave state) and the second part (developed waves). Wave parameters, such as peak period , significant wave height, wave age, and mean wave slope acquired from the WAM (WAve Model), were used to investigate the impact of wave field properties on noise and aerosol flux measurements. We observed different behaviours in the power spectrum density (PSD) levels of noise for these parameters depending on the wave state