Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Have Adverse Effects on Benthic Communities in the Baltic Sea: Implications for Environmental Status Assessment

Raymond, C; Gorokhova, E; Karlson, AML
2021 | Front. Environ. Sci. | 9
biodiversity , contaminants , environmental quality , hazardous substances , key-species , seafloor integrity , sediment , zoobenthos
Changes in benthic macrofaunal communities are indicative of environmental stressors, including eutrophication and hypoxia. However, some species are sensitive not only to hypoxia but also to various environmental contaminants. We tested which of the environmental predictors (sediment organic carbon, sediment concentrations of metals and polyaromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], bottom water oxygen, salinity, temperature, and surface chlorophyll-a concentration) that best explained the following response variables: (1) macrofauna community composition, (2) abundance of a benthic sentinel species, the amphipod Monoporeia affinis; and (3) the Benthic Quality Index (BQI). All data originated from 29 reference monitoring stations in the Baltic Sea and the statistical tests included both uni- and multivariate analyses. The community composition and BQI were best explained by the same combination of salinity, depth, temperature and PAH concentrations. The abundance of M. affinis, which is sensitive to hypoxia and chemical exposure, was best explained by PAHs as a single predictor. Our findings suggest that benthic communities in the Baltic Sea are influenced by anthropogenic contaminants, which should be taken into account when benthos is used for eutrophication status assessment.

Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds in Car Dust: A Pilot Study in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Ali, N; Kadi, MW; Albar, HMSA; Rashid, MI; Chandrasekaran, S; Summan, AS; de Wit, CA; Malarvannan, G
2021 | Int J Environ Res Public Health | 18 (9)
aromatic-hydrocarbons pahs , brominated flame retardants , car dust , flame retardants , health , homes , house-dust , human exposure , indoor dust , metabolites , organophosphate , pahs , pcbs , phthalates , risk assessment , serum samples
People may spend a significant amount of their daily time in cars and thus be exposed to chemicals present in car dust. Various chemicals are emitted from during car use, contaminating the car dust. In this study, we compiled published and unpublished data on the occurrence of phthalates, flame retardants (FRs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Saudi car dust. Phthalates, a class of chemical commonly used as plasticizers in different car parts, were the major pollutants found in car dust, with a median value of n-ary sumation phthalates 1,279,000 ng/g. Among other chemicals, organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) were found to be between 1500-90,500 ng/g, which indicates their use as alternative FRs in the car industry. The daily exposure to Saudi drivers (regular and taxi drivers) was below the respective reference dose (RfD) values of the individual chemicals. However, the estimated incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) values due to chronic exposure to these chemicals was >1 x 10(-5) for taxi drivers for phthalates and PAHs, indicating that the long-term exposure to these chemicals is a cause of concern for drivers who spend considerable time in cars. The study has some limitations, due to the small number of samples, lack of updated RfD values, and missing cancer slope factors for many studied chemicals. Despite these limitations, this study indicates the possible range of exposure to drivers from chemicals in car dust and warrants further extensive studies to confirm these patterns.

Aerosol characteristics from earth observation systems: A comprehensive investigation over South Asia (2000?2019)

Mhawish, A; Sorek-Hamer, M; Chatfield, R; Banerjee, T; Bilal, M; Kumar, M; Sarangi, C; Franklin, M; Chau, K; Garay, M; Kalashnikova, O
2021 | Remote Sens. Environ. | 259
air quality , aod , climate , emissions , igp , imaging spectroradiometer misr , long , maiac , misr , modis , northern india , omi , optical depth , pollution , retrieval algorithms , size-fractional aod , south asia , terra
The present study summarizes two decades (2000?2019) of climatology and trends in aerosol loading and optical properties using a high spatial resolution data obtained from NASA?s MODIS MAIAC and MISR aerosol products supplemented by moderate resolution aerosol data from OMI sensor over South Asia (SA). MISR AOD showed good agreement against AERONET AOD with 68.68% of the retrievals falling within the expected error and high Pearson?s correlation coefficient (R = 0.83). The 20 years geometric mean of MAIAC and MISR AOD revealed higher loading of aerosols over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and Eastern coast of India by 30% to 44% compared to the mean AOD over the entire SA. The highest mean AOD under cloud-free conditions was noted during monsoon season, followed by pre-monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter. The high contribution of coarsemode AOD (cAOD) mainly from natural aerosol emission and small-mode AOD (sAOD) from local anthropogenic emissions are the main driver to high AOD in monsoon and pre-monsoon seasons. Besides, the presence of high humidity during the monsoon season favors the hygroscopic growth of the particles and leads to higher AOD values over SA. The high spatial resolutions of MODIS/MAIAC and MISR aerosol products enabled the identification of previously unobserved aerosol hotspots over Bihar, West Bengal, and the eastern Indian coastal state of Odisha, which is mainly dominated by small aerosol particles. The contributions of smaller aerosol particles to the total aerosol loading were found to be higher during post-monsoon and winter over most states in India, Nepal, and Bangladesh. In contrast, the contribution of coarser particles was higher over Pakistan during premonsoon and monsoon seasons. Smaller particles were predominantly retrieved over the Indian states dominated by mining industries, including Jharkhand and Odisha. A typical dominance of absorbing carbonaceous aerosols was also noted over the northwestern region of IGP during post-monsoon, which otherwise was mainly affected by mixed dust aerosols and carbonaceous aerosols in pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. A statistically significant positive temporal trend in AOD was observed for the whole study period, over most of the SA region, which was influenced by the increase in small particles over India and Bangladesh. Urban/industrial weakly absorbing aerosols were found to be the main contributor to a similarly positive trend over Central India and East coast Indian states. Overall, recent advancements in high spatial resolution satellite-based aerosol optical properties showed good potential to identify the aerosol hotspots and constrain aerosol types across a highly polluted SA region.

Lockdown Measures Which Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions With Little Negative Impact on Quality of Life

Niemi, M; Skelton, A; Noone, K; Olsson, MJ
2021 | Earth Future | 9 (5)
covid-19 , greenhouse-gas emissions , lockdown measures , quality of life
Lockdown measures in response to the new Covid-19 virus have caused the largest ever fall of annual greenhouse gas emissions. A key question that we attempt to answer in this study is which, if any, of these measures can be productively encouraged post-lockdown in efforts to sustain at least part of this reduction in emissions. Sweden is uniquely suited for our study because the voluntary nature of lockdown in Sweden allowed us to assess the level of compliance to recommendations and its effects on greenhouse gas emissions. First, we assessed the change of perceived quality of life (QOL) among 746 individuals from Stockholm region due to adhering to lockdown measures. Second, we calculated the associated change of annual per capita greenhouse emissions. We found that avoiding travel for work, avoiding purchasing, and avoiding restaurants had the least negative effect on QOL, and at the same time the largest positive effect on carbon dioxide equivalent (CO(2)e) emission reductions. We conclude that these are potential leverage points for stimulating behavioral change that has a positive climatic impact.

Chemical speciation of mercury, sulfur and iron in a dystrophic boreal lake sediment, as controlled by the formation of mackinawite and framboidal pyrite

Skyllberg, U; Persson, A; Tjerngren, I; Kronberg, RM; Drott, A; Meili, M; Bjorn, E
2021 | Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta | 294 (106-125)
aqueous-solutions , baltic sea , boreal lake , chemical speciation , hydrogen-sulfide , iron , isotope-dilution , k-edge xanes , mackinawite , mercury , mercury biogeochemistry , metacinnabar , methyl mercury , methylmercury , organic-matter , pyrite , ray-absorption spectroscopy , sulfur , wetland soils
The chemical speciation of mercury (Hg), methyl mercury (MeHg), sulfur and iron was investigated in the sediment and porewater of Lake Angessjon, a boreal, shallow (maximum depth 2.5 m), oligo-/dystrophic lake in northern Sweden. The lake receives terrestrial stream runoff from surrounding coniferous forest soils and peatlands having a low pH (4.6) and high concentrations of dissolved organic matter (DOM, annual average: 45 mg L-1), Fe (60 mu M), sulfate (105 mu M), inorganic Hg (1200 pM) and MeHg (250 pM). Sulfur K-edge XANES and Hg L-m-edge EXAFS spectroscopic measurements were used to characterize and quantify the sulfur speciation in the lake sediment at nine occasions, covering different seasons in the years of 2007 and 2009. In the surface sediment (0-3 cm) sulfate is reduced to zero-valent S and inorganic sulfide, that in turn reacts with Fe to form FeSm (mackinawite) and FeS2 (framboidal pyrite). The latter mineral becomes increasingly dominant by depth in the sediment. Thermodynamic modeling successfully predicted measured porewater concentrations of Hg in the sediment. Metacinnabar (beta-HgS) and Hg(NOM-RS)(2) complexes (the latter formed as a reaction between Hg(II) and thiol groups associated with natural organic matter, NOM-RSH) were the dominant forms of Hg(II) in the solid phase of sediments and Hg(II)-polysulfides (aq) dominated in the porewater. We argue that FeS m is a key component that indirectly controlled the Hg (II) speciation in the sediment by keeping the aqueous phase concentration of inorganic sulfide in the 0.5-2 mu M range throughout the year. Besides providing a pool of readily soluble inorganic sulfide for formation of beta-HgS(s), as demonstrated by previously reported EXAFS experiments, we further suggest FeS m may serve as a precursor for the formation of a more crystalline (less soluble) beta-HgS(s) phase than present in environments devoid of FeSm. Support for this was provided by comparing our results with previously reported thermodynamic modelling results of Hg(II) and MeHg solubility in organic soils devoid of FeSm. In more general terms, we suggest the presence or absence of FeSm, through its influence on the chemical speciation of Hg and MeHg, may be a key factor behind the variability in rates of Hg(II) and MeHg transformation processes, such as methylation, reduction and demethylation, reported for different environmental settings. (C) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Suspect and non-target screening of ovarian follicular fluid and serum – identification of anthropogenic chemicals and investigation of their association to fertility

Hallberg, I; Plassmann, M; Olovsson, M; Holte, J; Damdimopoulou, P; Sjunnesson, YCB; Benskin, JP; Persson, S
2021 | Environ. Sci.-Process Impacts | 23 (10) (1578-1588)
bisphenol-a concentrations , contaminants , embryo score , exposure , infertility , mass spectrometry , perfluorinated chemicals , perfluoroalkyl , polychlorinated biphenyls , women
In this work, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-high resolution (Orbitrap) mass spectrometry-based suspect and non-target screening was applied to follicular fluid (n = 161) and serum (n = 116) from women undergoing in vitro fertilization in order to identify substances that may be associated with decreased fertility. Detected features were prioritized for identification based on (i) hazard/exposure scores in a database of chemicals on the Swedish market and an in-house database on per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS); (ii) enrichment in follicular fluid relative to serum; and (iii) association with treatment outcomes. Non-target screening detected 20 644 features in follicular fluid and 13 740 in serum. Two hundred and sixty-two features accumulated in follicular fluid (follicular fluid: serum ratio >20) and another 252 features were associated with embryo quality. Standards were used to confirm the identities of 21 compounds, including 11 PFAS. 6-Hydroxyindole was associated with lower embryo quality and 4-aminophenol was associated with higher embryo quality. Overall, we show the complexity of follicular fluid and the applicability of suspect and non-target screening for discovering both anthropogenic and endogenous substances, which may play a role in fertility in women.

Year-Round Measurements of Dissolved Black Carbon in Coastal Southeast Asia Aerosols: Rethinking Its Atmospheric Deposition in the Ocean

Geng, XF; Zhong, GC; Liu, JW; Sun, Y; Yi, X; Bong, CW; Zakaria, MP; Gustafsson, O; Ouyang, Y; Zhang, G
2021 | J. Geophys. Res.-Atmos. | 126 (18)
atmospheric deposition , benzene polycarboxylic acid , biomass burning emissions , black carbon cycle , dissolved black carbon , light-absorption , marine aerosols , matter , particulate , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons , radiocarbon , soluble organic-carbon , source apportionment , transport , variability
Dissolved black carbon (DBC) is an important recalcitrant fraction of marine dissolved organic matter. Riverine discharge is the largest known source of oceanic DBC; however, the significance of atmospheric deposition as a source of oceanic DBC remains poorly understood. In this study, year-round aerosol sampling was carried out at a rural coastal site in Southeast Asia for DBC analysis using the benzene polycarboxylic acid (BPCA) method. The results revealed the uncertainty of an earlier estimate of the atmospheric deposition flux of DBC to the global ocean (F-DBC), which assumed a linear correlation between DBC and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC). The correlation between DBC and WSOC depended on the sources of carbonaceous aerosols. The DBC/WSOC ratios were higher for the biomass burning aerosols. DBC was linearly correlated with black carbon (BC) for biomass or fossil fuel combustion aerosols. However, the DBC/BC ratios were higher for biomass burning aerosols (0.41 +/- 0.22), whereas lower for fossil fuel combustion aerosols (0.04 +/- 0.03). F-DBC was revisited based on the relationship between DBC and BC. F-DBC is primarily contributed by biomass burning aerosols and maybe previously underestimated. In this study, the DBC in aerosols had less condensed aromatic structures than the DBC present in the major rivers of the world, as shown by the BPCA compositions. This indicated that oceanic DBC sourced from atmospheric deposition was less likely to be removed by photodegradation and sedimentation, as compared to the DBC sourced from riverine discharge.

Negligible Greenhouse Gas Release from Sediments in Oyster Habitats

Ray, NE; Fulweiler, RW
2021 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 55 (20) (14225-14233)
aquaculture , carbon-dioxide , climate , denitrification , greenhouse gas , impact , intertidal sediments , methane , mineralization , nitrous-oxide , nitrous-oxide production , oyster , seasonal variation , shells , system , water
After centuries of decline, oyster populations are now on the rise in coastal systems globally following aquaculture development and restoration efforts. Oysters regulate the biogeochemistry of coastal systems in part by promoting sediment nutrient recycling and removing excess nitrogen via denitrification. Less clear is how oysters alter sediment greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes.an important consideration as oyster populations grow. Here, we show that sediments in oyster habitats produce carbon dioxide (CO2), with highest rates in spring (2396.91 +/- 381.98 mu mol CO2 m(-2) h(-1)) following deposition of seasonal diatom blooms and in summer (2795.20 +/- 307.55 mu mol CO2 m(-2) h(-1)) when temperatures are high. Sediments in oyster habitats also consistently released methane to the water column (725.94 +/- 150.34 nmol CH4 m(-2) h(-1)) with no seasonal pattern. Generally, oyster habitat sediments were a sink for nitrous oxide (N2O; -36.11 +/- 7.24 nmol N2O m(-2) h(-1)), only occasionally releasing N2O in spring. N2O release corresponded to high organic matter and dissolved nitrogen availability, suggesting denitrification as the production pathway. Despite potential CO2 production increases under aquaculture in some locations, we conclude that in temperate regions oysters have an overall negligible impact on sediment GHG cycling.

Permafrost Thaw Increases Methylmercury Formation in Subarctic Fennoscandia

Tarbier, B; Hugelius, G; Sannel, ABK; Baptista-Salazar, C; Jonsson, S
2021 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 55 (10) (6710-6717)
availability , carbon , holocene development , mercury distribution , methylation rates , peatlands , pollution , ponds , stocks , tracer
Methylmercury (MeHg) forms in anoxic environments and can bioaccumulate and biomagnify in aquatic food webs to concentrations of concern for human and wildlife health. Mercury (Hg) pollution in the Arctic environment may worsen as these areas warm and Hg, currently locked in permafrost soils, is remobilized. One of the main concerns is the development of Hg methylation hotspots in the terrestrial environment due to thermokarst formation. The extent to which net methylation of Hg is enhanced upon thaw is, however, largely unknown. Here, we have studied the formation of Hg methylation hotspots using existing thaw gradients at five Fennoscandian permafrost peatland sites. Total Hg (HgT) and MeHg concentrations were analyzed in 178 soil samples from 14 peat cores. We observed 10 times higher concentrations of MeHg and 13 times higher %MeHg in the collapse fen (representing thawed conditions) as compared to the peat plateau (representing frozen conditions). This suggests significantly greater net methylation of Hg when thermokarst wetlands are formed. In addition, we report HgT to soil organic carbon ratios representative of Fennoscandian permafrost peatlands (median and interquartile range of 0.09 +/- 0.07 mu g HgT g(-1) C) that are of value for future estimates of circumpolar HgT stocks.

Fate of active pharmaceutical ingredients in a northern high-rate algal pond fed with municipal wastewater

Lindberg, RH; Namazkar, S; Lage, S; Ostman, M; Gojkovic, Z; Funk, C; Gentili, FG; Tysklind, M
2021 | Chemosphere | 271
algal biomass , alternative green treatment techniques , hydrophobicity driven removal , removal mechanisms
Active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) are vital to human health and welfare, but following therapeutic use, they may pose a potential ecological risk if discharged into the environment. Today's conventional municipal wastewater treatment plants are not designed to remove APIs specifically, and various techniques, preferably cost-effective and environmentally friendly, are being developed and evaluated. Microalgae-based treatment of wastewater is a sustainable and low-cost approach to remove nutrients and emerging contaminants. In this study, a North Sweden high-rate algal pond (HRAP) using municipal untreated wastewater as medium, was investigated in terms of API distribution and fate. Three six-day batches were prepared during 18 days and a total of 36 APIs were quantified within the HRAP of which 14 were removed from the aqueous phase above 50% and seven removed above 90% of their initial concentrations. Twelve APIs of a hydrophobic nature were mostly associated with the algal biomass that was harvested at the end of each batch. HRAPs treatment successfully removed 69% of studied APIs (25 of 36 studied) in six day time. The distribution of various APIs between the aqueous phase and biomass suggested that several removal mechanisms may occur, such as hydrophobicity driven removal, passive biosorption and active bioaccumulation. (C) 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Long-Term Exposure to Transportation Noise and Risk of Incident Stroke: A Pooled Study of Nine Scandinavian Cohorts

Roswall, N; Pyko, A; Ogren, M; Oudin, A; Rosengren, A; Lager, A; Poulsen, AH; Eriksson, C; Segersson, D; Rizzuto, D; Andersson, EM; Aasvang, GM; Engstrom, G; Jorgensen, JT; Selander, J; Christensen, JH; Thacher, J; Leander, K; Overvad, K; Eneroth, K; Mattisson, K; Barregard, L; Stockfelt, L; Albin, M; Ketzel, M; Simonsen, MK; Spanne, M; Raaschou-Nielsen, O; Magnusson, PKE; Tuttanen, P; Molnar, P; Ljungman, P; Lanki, T; Lim, YH; Andersen, ZJ; Pershagen, G; Sorensen, M
2021 | Environ. Health Perspect. | 129 (10)
air pollution , cardiovascular-disease , men , mortality , road traffic noise , update
BACKGROUND: Transportation noise is increasingly acknowledged as a cardiovascular risk factor, but the evidence base for an association with stroke is sparse. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the association between transportation noise and stroke incidence in a large Scandinavian population. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled data from nine Scandinavian cohorts (seven Swedish, two Danish), totaling 135,951 participants. We identified residential address history and estimated road, railway, and aircraft noise for all addresses. Information on stroke incidence was acquired through linkage to national patient and mortality registries. We analyzed data using Cox proportional hazards models, including socioeconomic and lifestyle confounders, and air pollution. RESULTS: During follow-up (median = 19.5 y), 11,056 stroke cases were identified. Road traffic noise (Lden) was associated with risk of stroke, with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.08] per 10-dB higher 5-y mean time-weighted exposure in analyses adjusted for individual- and area-level socioeconomic covariates. The association was approximately linear and persisted after adjustment for air pollution [particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of <= 2.5 mu m (PM2.5) and NO2]. Stroke was associated with moderate levels of 5-y aircraft noise exposure (40-50 vs. = 50 dB, HR = 0.94; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.11). Railway noise was not associated with stroke. DISCUSSION: In this pooled study, road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk of stroke. This finding supports road traffic noise as an important cardiovascular risk factor that should be included when estimating the burden of disease due to traffic noise.

Environmental Sources, Chemistry, Fate, and Transport of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances: State of the Science, Key Knowledge Gaps, and Recommendations Presented at the August 2019 SETAC Focus Topic Meeting

Guelfo, JL; Korzeniowski, S; Mills, MA; Anderson, J; Anderson, RH; Arblaster, JA; Conder, JM; Cousins, IT; Dasu, K; Henry, BJ; Lee, LS; Liu, JX; McKenzie, ER; Willey, J
2021 | Environ. Toxicol. Chem. | 40 (12) (3234-3260)
6/2 fluorotelomer sulfonate , aerobic biotransformation , analytical chemistry , classification , fate and transport , film-forming foams , fire-training areas , firefighting foam deployment , interfacial sorption , perfluorinated alkyl acids , perfluoroalkyl substances , precursor , resolution-mass-spectrometry , risk assessment , waste-water , water treatment-plant
A Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) Focused Topic Meeting (FTM) on the environmental management of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) convened during August 2019 in Durham, North Carolina (USA). Experts from around the globe were brought together to critically evaluate new and emerging information on PFAS including chemistry, fate, transport, exposure, and toxicity. After plenary presentations, breakout groups were established and tasked to identify and adjudicate via panel discussions overarching conclusions and relevant data gaps. The present review is one in a series and summarizes outcomes of presentations and breakout discussions related to (1) primary sources and pathways in the environment, (2) sorption and transport in porous media, (3) precursor transformation, (4) practical approaches to the assessment of source zones, (5) standard and novel analytical methods with implications for environmental forensics and site management, and (6) classification and grouping from multiple perspectives. Outcomes illustrate that PFAS classification will continue to be a challenge, and additional pressing needs include increased availability of analytical standards and methods for assessment of PFAS and fate and transport, including precursor transformation. Although the state of the science is sufficient to support a degree of site-specific and flexible risk management, effective source prioritization tools, predictive fate and transport models, and improved and standardized analytical methods are needed to guide broader policies and best management practices. Environ Toxicol Chem 2021;00:1-27. (c) 2021 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC.

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