Bioaccumulation of Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in a tropical estuarine food web

Miranda, DA; Benskin, JP; Awad, R; Lepoint, G; Leonel, J; Hatje, V
2021 | Sci. Total Environ. | 754
biomagnification , brazil , os-santos bay , perfluorinated compounds , perfluoroalkyl acids pfaas , perfluorooctane sulfonate , persistent organic pollutants , pfos precursors , pops , sulfluramid use , tissue distribution , todos os santos bay , trace-metal contamination , trophic magnification factors , tropical food web
The biomagnification of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) was investigated in a tropical mangrove food web from an estuary in Bahia, Brazil. Samples of 44 organisms (21 taxa), along with biofilm, leaves, sediment and suspended particulate matter were analyzed. Sum (Sigma) PFAS concentrations in biota samples were dominated by perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS, 93% detection frequency in tissues; 0.05 to 1.97 ng g(-1) ww whole-body (wb)), followed by perfluorotridecanoate (PFTrDA, 57%; 0.01 to 0.28 ng g(-1) ww wb). PFOS precursors such as perfluorooctane sulfonamide (FOSA, 54%; 0.01 to 0.32 ng g(-1) ww wb) and N-ethyl perfluorooctane sulfonamide (EtFOSA; 30%; 0.01 to 0.21 ng g(-1) ww wb) were also detected. PFAS accumulation profiles revealed different routes of exposure among bivalve, crustacean and fish groups. Statistics for left-censored data were used in order to minimize bias on trophic magnification factors (TMFs) calculations. TMFs >1 were observed for PFOS (linear + branched isomers), EtFOSA (linear + branched isomers), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and in all cases, dissimilar accumulation patterns were observed among different trophic positions. The apparent biodilution of some long-chain PFCAs through the food chain (TMF < 1) may be due to exposure from multiple PFAS sources. This is the first study investigating bioaccumulation of PFASs in a tropical food web and provides new insight on the behavior of this ubiquitous class of contaminants. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Weathering Plastics as a Planetary Boundary Threat: Exposure, Fate, and Hazards

Arp, HPH; Kuhnel, D; Rummel, C; MacLeod, M; Potthoff, A; Reichelt, S; Rojo-Nieto, E; Schmitt-Jansen, M; Sonnenberg, J; Toorman, E; Jahnke, A
2021 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 55 (11) (7246-7255)
debris , degradation , density polyethylene , environmental plastics , environments , exposure , fate , fragmentation , hazards , marine , microplastic particles , planetary boundary threat , polystyrene , transport , water , weathering
We described in 2017 how weathering plastic litter in the marine environment fulfils two of three criteria to impose a planetary boundary threat related to "chemical pollution and the release of novel entities": (1) planetary-scale exposure, which (2) is not readily reversible. Whether marine plastics meet the third criterion, (3) eliciting a disruptive impact on vital earth system processes, was uncertain. Since then, several important discoveries have been made to motivate a re-evaluation. A key issue is if weathering macroplastics, microplastics, nanoplastics, and their leachates have an inherently higher potential to elicit adverse effects than natural particles of the same size. We summarize novel findings related to weathering plastic in the context of the planetary boundary threat criteria that demonstrate (1) increasing exposure, (2) fate processes leading to poorly reversible pollution, and (3) (eco)toxicological hazards and their thresholds. We provide evidence that the third criterion could be fulfilled for weathering plastics in sensitive environments and therefore conclude that weathering plastics pose a planetary boundary threat. We suggest future research priorities to better understand (eco)toxicological hazards modulated by increasing exposure and continuous weathering processes, to better parametrize the planetary boundary threshold for plastic pollution.

Perfluoroalkyl Substances in the Western Tropical Atlantic Ocean

Miranda, DD; Leonel, J; Benskin, JP; Johansson, J; Hatje, V
2021 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 55 (20) (13749-13758)
cabo frio , deep-water , geotraces , labrador sea , perfluorinated acids , perfluorooctanoic acid (pfoa) , pfaas , polyfluoroalkyl substances , pops , south-atlantic , sulfluramid use , surface water , tropical atlantic ocean , upwelling , upwelling system
The dispersion of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in surface and deep-water profiles (down to 5845 m deep) was evaluated through the Western Tropical Atlantic Ocean (TAO) between 15 degrees N and 23 degrees S. The sum concentrations for eight quantifiable PFAS (Sigma(8)PFAS) in surface waters ranged from 11 to 69 pg/L, which is lower than previously reported in the same area as well as in higher latitudes. Perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the predominant PFASs present in the Western TAO. The 16 surface samples showed variable PFAS distributions, with the predominance of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) along the transect (67%; 11 +/- 8 pg/L) and detection of perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSAs) only in the Southern TAO. Perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA) was often detected in the vertical profiles. PFAS distribution patterns (i.e., profiles and concentrations) varied with depth throughout the TAO latitudinal sectors (North, Equator, South Atlantic, and in the Brazilian coastal zone). Vertical profiles in coastal samples displayed decreasing PFAS concentrations with increasing depth, whereas offshore samples displayed higher PFAS detection frequencies in the intermediate water masses. Together with the surface currents and coastal upwelling, the origin of the water masses was an important factor in explaining PFAS concentrations and profiles in the TAO.

Understanding Biofilm Formation in Ecotoxicological Assays With Natural and Anthropogenic Particulates

Gorokhova, E; Motiei, A; El-Shehawy, R
2021 | Front. Microbiol. | 12
actinobacteria , bacteria , bacterial assemblages on microplastic , balos , daphnia , daphnia-magna , diverse , ecotoxicological testing , microbiome , nov. , particle aggregation , plastic debris , predation , resistance , sediments , size distribution , suspended clay , zooplankton
Fossil-made polymers harbor unique bacterial assemblages, and concerns have been raised that ingested microplastic may affect the consumer gut microbiota and spread pathogens in animal populations. We hypothesized that in an ecotoxicity assay with a mixture of polystyrene (PS) and clay: (1) microbiome of the test animals inoculates the system with bacteria; (2) relative contribution of PS and the total amount of suspended solids (SS) select for specific bacterial communities; and (3) particle aggregation is affected by biofilm community composition, with concomitant effects on the animal survival. Mixtures of PS and clay at different concentrations of SS (10, 100, and 1000 mg/L) with a varying microplastics contribution (%PS; 0-80%) were incubated with Daphnia magna, whose microbiome served as an inoculum for the biofilms during the exposure. After 4-days of exposure, we examined the biofilm communities by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, particle size distribution, and animal survival. The biofilm communities were significantly different from the Daphnia microbiota used to inoculate the system, with an overrepresentation of predatory, rare, and potentially pathogenic taxa in the biofilms. The biofilm diversity was stimulated by %PS and decreased by predatory bacteria. Particle aggregate size and the biofilm composition were the primary drivers of animal survival, with small particles and predatory bacteria associated with a higher death rate. Thus, in effect studies with solid waste materials, ecological interactions in the biofilm can affect particle aggregation and support potentially harmful microorganisms with concomitant effects on the test animals.

Evaluating reliability and risk of bias of in vivo animal data for risk assessment of chemicals – Exploring the use of the SciRAP tool in a systematic review context

Waspe, J; Bui, T; Dishaw, L; Kraft, A; Luke, A; Beronius, A
2021 | Environ Int | 146
environmental-health science , guidance , iris , methodology , ohat , randomized controlled-trials , reliability , reporting quality , risk of bias , scales , scirap , systematic review , toxrtool , weight
Within the field of health risk assessment, it is essential that evaluations of reliability or validity of toxicity data are conducted with structure and transparency. To this end, different tools for evaluating toxicity studies have been developed by different groups and organizations, for different specific purposes. The Science in Risk Assessment and Policy (SciRAP) tool was developed for use in the regulatory health risk assessment of chemicals and to promote structured and transparent evaluation of study reliability within European regulatory frameworks. As such, the SciRAP tool is not specifically tailored for use in a systematic review context. However, in light of the current movement towards applying systematic review in the field of environmental health and chemical assessments and European chemicals regulation, we were interested in exploring how SciRAP could be applied in such a context. To achieve this, the scope of the SciRAP tool was first compared to two tools developed based on systematic review principles at the US Environmental Protection Agency's IRIS program and the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT). Next, the SciRAP and IRIS tools were both applied in a case study to evaluate the same nine in vivo animal studies and the resulting evaluations were compared. The SciRAP tool was found to address the majority of the elements included for study evaluation in the OHAT and IRIS tools. In the case study, no major differences were found in the conclusions drawn when using SciRAP or IRIS tools. However, future developments to bring the SciRAP tool more in line with systematic review principles were identified and are discussed. Overall, this work illustrates the advantages of applying structured and pre-defined methods for study evaluation and provides a unique case study comparing the impact of using different tools for evaluating animal toxicity studies.

Differing Mechanisms of New Particle Formation at Two Arctic Sites

Lisa J. Beck; Nina Sarnela; Heikki Junninen; Clara J. M. Hoppe; Olga Garmash; Federico Bianchi; Matthieu Riva; Clemence Rose; Otso Peräkylä; Daniela Wimmer; Oskari Kausiala; Tuija Jokinen; Lauri Ahonen; Jyri Mikkilä; Jani Hakala; Xu‐Cheng He; Jenni Kontkanen; Klara K. E. Wolf; David Cappelletti; Mauro Mazzola; Rita Traversi; Chiara Petroselli; Angelo P. Viola; Vito Vitale; Robert Lange; Andreas Massling; Jakob K. Nøjgaard; Radovan Krejci; Linn Karlsson; Paul Zieger; Sehyun Jang; Kitack Lee; Ville Vakkari; Janne Lampilahti; Roseline C. Thakur; Katri Leino; Juha Kangasluoma; Ella‐Maria Duplissy; Erkki Siivola; Marjan Marbouti; Yee Jun Tham; Alfonso Saiz‐Lopez; Tuukka Petäjä; Mikael Ehn; Douglas R. Worsnop; Henrik Skov; Markku Kulmala; Veli‐Matti Kerminen; Mikko Sipilä
2020 | Geophys Res Lett | 48 (4)

New particle formation in the Arctic atmosphere is an important source of aerosol particles. Understanding the processes of Arctic secondary aerosol formation is crucial due to their significant impact on cloud properties and therefore Arctic amplification. We observed the molecular formation of new particles from low‐volatility vapors at two Arctic sites with differing surroundings. In Svalbard, sulfuric acid (SA) and methane sulfonic acid (MSA) contribute to the formation of secondary aerosol and to some extent to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). This occurs via ion‐induced nucleation of SA and NH3 and subsequent growth by mainly SA and MSA condensation during springtime and highly oxygenated organic molecules during summertime. By contrast, in an ice‐covered region around Villum, we observed new particle formation driven by iodic acid but its concentration was insufficient to grow nucleated particles to CCN sizes. Our results provide new insight about sources and precursors of Arctic secondary aerosol particles.

Comparison of measured residential black carbon levels outdoors and indoors with fixed-site monitoring data and with dispersion modelling

Gruzieva, O.; Georgelis, A.; Andersson, N.; Bellander, T..; Johansson, C.; Merritt, A.-S.
2020 | Environ Sci Pollut Res

High Concentrations of Unidentified Extractable Organofluorine Observed in Blubber from a Greenland Killer Whale (Orcinus orca)

Lara Schultes; Carmen van Noordenburg; Kyra M. Spaan; Merle M. Plassmann; Malene Simon; Anna Roos; Jonathan P. Benskin
2020 | Environ. Sci. Technol. Lett. | 7 (909-915)

It is generally accepted that per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) occur primarily in protein-rich tissues such as blood and liver, but few studies have examined the occurrence of legacy and novel PFASs in lipid-rich tissues such as blubber. Here we report the distribution of 24 PFASs, total fluorine, and extractable organic fluorine (EOF) in eight different tissues of a killer whale (Orcinus orca) from East Greenland. The sum of target PFAS concentrations was highest in liver (352 ng/g of wet weight) and decreased in the following order: blood > kidney ≈ lung ≈ ovary > skin ≈ muscle ≈ blubber. Most of the EOF consisted of known PFASs in all tissues except blubber, which displayed the highest concentration of EOF, almost none of which was attributed to targeted PFASs. Suspect screening using high-resolution mass spectrometry revealed the presence of additional PFASs but is unlikely to explain the high concentrations of EOF in blubber. While the identity of this unknown organofluorine and its pervasiveness in marine mammals require further investigation, this work suggests that exposure of killer whales to organofluorine substances may be underestimated by determination of legacy PFASs exclusively in liver or blood.

Molecular Perspective on Water Vapor Accommodation into Ice and Its Dependence on Temperature

Daniel Schlesinger; Samuel J. Lowe; Tinja Olenius; Xiangrui Kong; Jan B. C. Pettersson; Ilona Riipinen
2020 | JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY A | 124 (51) (10879-10889)

Provningsjämförelse / Proficiency Test 2020-5, Avloppsvatten / Wastewater

2020 | ACES rapport, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University | Report No: 44

The effect of weathering on per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) from durable water repellent (DWR) clothing

van der Veen, I; Hanning, A-C; Stare, A; Leonards, PEG; de Boer, J; Weiss, JM
2020 | Chemosphere | 249

Assessing costs and benefits of improved soil quality management in remediation projects: A study of an urban site contaminated with PAH and metals

Volchko, Y; Kleja Berggren, D; Back, P-E; Tiberg, C; Enell, A; Larsson, M; Jones, CM; Taylor, A; Viketoft, M; Åberg, A; Dahlberg, A-K; Weiss, J; Wiberg, K; Rosén, L
2020 | Sci. Total Environ. | 707

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