Cats’ Internal Exposure to Selected Brominated Flame Retardants and Organochlorines Correlated to House Dust and Cat Food
Athabasca Oil Sands Petcoke Extract Elicits Biochemical and Transcriptomic Effects in Avian Hepatocytes
Petroleum coke or "petcoke" is a granular carbonaceous material produced during the upgrading of heavy crude oils, including bitumen. Petcoke dust was recently reported as an environmental contaminant in the Athabasca oil sands region, but the ecotoxicological hazards posed by this complex bitumen-derived material-including those to avian species-have not been characterized. In this study, solvent extracts (x) of delayed and fluid petcoke (xDP and xFP) were prepared and dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. A water accommodated fraction of delayed petcoke (waDP) was also prepared. Graded concentrations of xDP, xFP, and waDP were administered to chicken and double-crested cormorant hepatOcytes to determine effects on 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, porphyrin accumulation, and mRNA expression. Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were characterized, and xDP, xFP, and waDP had total PAC concentrations of 93 000, 270, and 5.3 ng/mL. The rank order of biochemical and transcriptomic responses was xDP > xFP > waDP (e.g., EROD EC50s, were lower for xDP compared to xFP and waDP). A total of 22, 18, and 4 genes were altered following exposure to the highest concentrations of xDP, xFP, and waDP, respectively, using a chicken PCR array comprising 27 AhR-related genes. To provide more exhaustive coverage of potential toxicity pathways being impacted, two avian ToxChip PCR-arrays chicken and double-crested cormorant-were utilized, and xDP altered the expression of more genes than xFP. Traditional PAC-related toxicity pathways and novel mechanisms of action were identified in two avian species following petcoke extract exposure. Extrapolation to real-world exposure scenarios must consider the bioavailability of the extracted PACs compared to those in exposed organisms.
Microbial utilization of mineral-associated nitrogen in soils
Diffusive dynamics during the high-to-low density transition in amorphous ice
Sublethal Lead Exposure Alters Movement Behavior in Free-Ranging Golden Eagles
Lead poisoning of animals due to ingestion of fragments from lead-based ammunition in carcasses and offal of shot wildlife is acknowledged globally and raises great concerns about potential behavioral effects leading to increased mortality risks. Lead levels in blood were correlated with progress of the moose hunting season. Based on analyses of tracking data, we found that even sublethal lead concentrations in blood (25 ppb, wet weight), can likely negatively affect movement behavior (flight height and movement rate) of free ranging scavenging Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos). Lead levels in liver of recovered post-mortem analyzed eagles suggested that sublethal exposure increases the risk of mortality in eagles. Such adverse effects on animals are probably common worldwide and across species, where game hunting with lead-based ammunition is widespread. Our study highlights lead exposure as a considerably more serious threat to wildlife conservation than previously realized and suggests implementation of bans of lead ammunition for hunting.
Microphysical explanation of the RH-dependent water affinity of biogenic organic aerosol and its importance for climate
Spatial distribution and bioaccumulation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in snails (Bellamya aeruginosa) and sediments from Taihu Lake area, China
SCREENING OF GENOTOXICITY AND MUTAGENICITY IN EXTRACTABLE ORGANICS FROM OIL SANDS PROCESS-AFFECTED WATER
Large volumes of oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) are produced by the oil sands surface mining industry during alkaline hot-water extraction of bitumen. It is well documented that the acid extractable organics (AEOs) in OSPW, a highly complex mixture of acidic and polar neutral substances, are acutely toxic; but few studies have examined the genotoxicity or mutagenicity of this mixture. In the present study, the in vitro SOS Chromotest and the Ames test (TA98 and TA100 strains) were used to evaluate genotoxicity and mutagenicity for whole OSPW AEOs in the presence and absence of biotransformation by rat S9 liver enzymes. Two subfractions were also examined in the same assays: neutral extractable fraction (F1-NE), and the subsequent acid extractable fraction (F2-AE). In the SOS assay, whole AEO was cytotoxic when concentrated 2 x (i.e., twice as concentrated as the environmental sample) and showed increasing genotoxic response above 6x. Co-exposure with S9 had a protective effect on the cell SOS-inducing factor and survival but did not eliminate genotoxicity above 6 x concentrations. Most of the cytotoxicity was attributable to F2-AE, but both F1-NE and F2-AE had similar genotoxic dose-responses above 6 x. In the Ames test without S9, whole AEO was mutagenic in both strains above 10x concentrations. Co-incubation with S9 had little effect on the TA100 strain but with TA98 resulted in bioactivation at midlevel doses (1.5-6.3x) and protection at higher doses (10-25x). The 2 subfractions were mutagenic in both strains but with different dose-responses. Further research in vivo or in more relevant cells is warranted to investigate the carcinogenic risks of OSPW. (C) 2016 SETAC
CCN production by new particle formation in the free troposphere
Chemical and toxicological characterizations of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water
Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has emerged as a major method of unconventional oil and gas recovery. The toxicity of hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water (HF-FPW) has not been previously reported and is complicated by the combined complexity of organic and inorganic constituents in HF fluids and deep formation water. In this study, we characterized the solids, salts, and organic signatures in an HF-FPW sample from the Duvernay Formation, Alberta, Canada. Untargeted HPLC-Orbitrap revealed numerous unknown dissolved polar organics. Among the most prominent peaks, a substituted tri-phenyl phosphate was identified which is likely an oxidation product of a common polymer antioxidant. Acute toxicity of zebrafish embryo was attributable to high salinity and organic contaminants in HF-FPW with LC50 values ranging from 0.6% to 3.9%, depending on the HF-FPW fractions and embryo developmental stages. Induction of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity was detected, due in part to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and suspended solids might have a synergistic effect on EROD induction. This study demonstrates that toxicological profiling of real HF-FPW sample presents great challenges for assessing the potential risks and impacts posed by HF-FPW spills. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Accumulation of Perfluoroalkylated Substances in Oceanic Plankton
The bioaccumulation of perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in plankton has previously been evaluated only in freshwater and regional seas, but not for the large oligotrophic global oceans. Plankton samples from the tropical and subtropical Pacific, Atlantic and Indian Oceans were collected during the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation expedition, and analyzed for 14 ionizable PFASs, including perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and their respective linear and branched isomers. PFOA and PFOS concentrations in plankton ranged from 0.1 to 43 ng g(dw)(-1) and from 0.5 to 6.7 ng g(dw)(-1), respectively. The relative abundance of branched PFOA in the northern hemisphere was correlated with distance to North America, consistent with the historical production and coherent with previously reported patterns in seawater. The plankton samples showing the highest PFOS concentrations also presented the largest relative abundances of branched PFOS, suggesting a selective cycling/fractionation of branched PFOS in the surface ocean mediated by plankton. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for plankton were calculated for six PFASs, including short chain PFASs. PFASs Log BAFs (wet weight) ranged from 2.6 +/- 0.8 for perfluorohexanesulfonic acid (PFHxS), to 4.4 +/- 0.6 for perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA). The vertical transport of PFASs due to the settling of organic matter bound PFAS (biological pump) was estimated from an organic matter settling fluxes climatology and the PFAS concentrations in plankton. The global average sinking fluxes were 0.8 +/- 1.3 ng m(-2)d(-1) for PFOA, and 1.1 +/- 2.1 ng m(-2)d(-1) for PFOS. The residence times of PFAS in the surface ocean, assuming the biological pump as the unique sink, showed a wide range of variability, from few years to millennia, depending on the sampling site and individual compound. Further process-based studies are needed to constrain the oceanic sink of PFAS.