Zurich Statement on Future Actions on Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs)
Emission Inventory of C4 to C10 Perfluoroalkanesulfonic Acids and Related Precursors: Focus on the Life Cycle of C6- and C10-Based Products
The concept of essential use for determining when uses of PFASs can be phased out
How Important is Bioturbation for Sediment‐to‐Water Flux of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Baltic Sea?
In the present study a recently developed benthic flow‐through chamber was used to assess the sediment‐to‐water
flux of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at 4 sites on the Swedish Baltic Sea coast. The flow‐through chamber allows for assessment of the potential effect of bioturbation on the sediment‐to‐water flux of hydrophobic organic contaminants. The sediments at the 4 investigated sites have both varying contamination degree and densities of bioturbating organisms. The flux of individual PAHs measured with the flow‐through chamber ranged between 21 and 510, 11 and 370, 3 and 9700, and 62 and 2300 ngm–2 d–1 for the 4 sites. To assess the potential effect of bioturbation on the sediment‐to‐water flux, 3
flow‐through and closed chambers were deployed in parallel at each site. The activity of benthic organisms is attenuated or halted because of depletion of oxygen in closed benthic chambers. Therefore, the discrepancy in flux measured with the 2 different chamber designs was used as an indication of a possible effect of bioturbation. A potential effect of bioturbation on the sediment‐to‐water flux by a factor of 3 to 55 was observed at sites with a high density of bioturbating organisms (e.g., Marenzelleria spp., Monoporeia affinis, and Macoma balthica of approximately 860–1200 individuals m–2) but not at the site with much lower organism density (<200 individuals m–2). One site had a high organism density and a low potential effect of bioturbation, which we hypothesize to be caused by the dominance of oligochaetes/polychaetes at this site because worms (Marenzelleria spp.) reach deeper into the sediment than native crustaceans and mollusks.
Concerns of young protesters are justifiedDownload
Personal exposure to black carbon in Stockholm, using different intra-urban transport modes
The traffic microenvironment has been shown to be a major contributor to the total personal exposure of black carbon (BC), and is key to local actions aiming at reducing health risks associated with such exposure. The main aim of the study was to get a better understanding of the determinants of traffic-related personal exposure to BC in an urban environment.
Personal exposure to ambient levels of BC was monitored while walking, cycling and traveling by bus or car along four streets and while cycling alternative routes simultaneously. Monitoring was performed during morning and afternoon peak hours and at midday, with a portable aethalometer recording one-minute mean values. In all, >4000 unique travel passages were performed. Stepwise Linear Regression was used to assess predictors to personal exposure levels of BC.
The personal BC concentration ranged 0.03–37 μg/m3. The average concentrations were lowest while walking (1.7 μg/m3) and highest traveling by bus (2.7 μg/m3). However, only 22% of the variability could be explained by travel mode, urban background BC and wind speed. BC concentrations measured inside a car were on average 33% lower than measured simultaneously outside the car. Choosing an alternative bicycle route with less traffic resulted in up to 1.4 μg/m3 lower personal exposure concentrations.
In conclusion, traveling by bus rendered the highest personal BC concentrations. But when taking travel time and inhalation rate into account, the travel-related exposure dose was predicted to be highest during walking and cycling. It is however probable that the benefits from physical activity outweigh health risks associated with this higher exposure dose.
It is clear that road traffic makes an important contribution to personal exposure to BC regardless of mode of intra-urban transport. Our data suggest that commuting along routes with lower BC levels would substantially decrease commuter's exposure.