Major lead exposure from hunting ammunition in eagles from Sweden

Björn Helander; Oliver Krone; Jannikke Räikkönen; Marcus Sundbom; Erik Ågren; Anders Bignert
2021 | Sci. Total Environ. | 735

Exposure to lead (Pb) from ammunition in scavenging and raptorial birds has achieved worldwide recognition based on incidences of lethal poisoning, but exposure implies also sublethal levels with potential harmful effects. Background and elevated Pb levels in liver from 116 golden eagles (GE, Aquila chrysaetos) and 200 white-tailed Sea eagles (WTSE, Haliaeetus albicilla) from Sweden 2003–2011 are here examined, with supporting data from a previous WTSE report and eagle owl (EO, Bubu bubo) report. GE and WTSE display seasonal patterns, with no Pb level exceeding a generally accepted threshold for subclinical effects during summer but strongly elevated levels from October. Fledged juveniles show significantly lower levels than all other age classes, but reach levels found in older birds in autumn after the start of hunting seasons. Pb levels in EO (non-scavenger) show no seasonal changes and indicate no influence from ammunition, and are close to levels observed in juvenile eagles before October. In all, 15% WTSE and 7% GE were lethally poisoned. In areas with high-exposure to hunting ammunition, 24% of WTSE showed lethal Pb levels, compared to 7% in both eagle species from low-exposure areas. Lethal poisoning of WTSE remained as frequent after (15%) as before (13%) a partial ban on use of Pb-based shotgun ammunition over shallow waters (2002). Pb levels increased significantly in WTSE 1981–2011, in contrast to other biota from the same period. A significant decrease of Pb in WTSE liver occurred below a threshold at 0.25 μg/g (dry weight), exceeded by 81% of the birds. Trend patterns in Pb isotope ratios lend further support to this estimated cut-off level for environmental background concentrations. Pb from spent ammunition affects a range of scavenging and predatory species. A shift to Pb-free ammunition to save wildlife from unnecessary harm is an important environmental and ethical issue.

A health economic assessment of air pollution effects under climate neutral vehicle fleet scenarios in Stockholm, Sweden

Kriit, H.,; Nilsson Sommar, J.,; Forsberg, B.; Åström, S.; Svensson, M.; Johansson, C.

Finding essentiality feasible: common questions and misinterpretations concerning the “essential-use” concept

Cousins, I.T.; DeWitt, J.C.; Glüge, J.; Goldenman, G.; Herzke, D.; Lohmann, R.; Miller, M.; Ng, C.A.; Patton, S.; Scheringer, M.; Trier, X.; Vierke, L.; Wang, Z.; DeWitt, J.C.
2021 | Environ. Sci.-Process Impacts | 23 (1079-1087)

Near-Source Risk Functions for Particulate Matter Are Critical When Assessing the Health Benefits of Local Abatement Strategies

2021 | Int J Environ Res Public Health | 18

Bioconcentration of Several Series of Cationic Surfactants in Rainbow Trout

Amelie Kierkegaard; Marcus Sundbom; Bo Yuan; James M. Armitage; Jon A. Arnot; Steven T. J. Droge; and Michael S. McLachlan
2021 | Environ. Sci. Technol.

Cationic surfactants have a strong affinity to sorb to phospholipid membranes and thus possess an inherent potential to bioaccumulate, but there are few measurements of bioconcentration in fish. We measured the bioconcentration of 10 alkylamines plus two quaternary ammonium compounds in juvenile rainbow trout at pH 7.6, and repeated the measurements at pH 6.2 for 6 of these surfactants. The BCF of the amines with chain lengths ≤ C14 was positively correlated with chain length, increasing ∼0.5 log units per carbon. Their BCF was also pH dependent and approximately proportional to the neutral fraction of the amine in the water. The BCFs of the quaternary ammonium compounds showed no pH dependence and were >2 orders of magnitude less than for amines of the same chain length at pH 7.6. This indicates that systemic uptake of permanently charged cationic surfactants is limited. The behavior of the quaternary ammonium compounds and the two C16 amines studied was consistent with previous observations that these surfactants accumulate primarily to the gills and external surfaces of the fish. At pH 7.6 the BCF exceeded 2000 L kg–1 for 4 amines with chains ≥ C13, showing that bioconcentration can be considerable for some longer chained cationic surfactants.

A long-term study of cloud residuals from low-level Arctic clouds

Linn Karlsson; Radovan Krejci; Makoto Koike; Kerstin Ebell; Paul Zieger
2021 | Atmos. Chem. Phys. | 21 (1-27)

To constrain uncertainties in radiative forcings associated with aerosol–cloud interactions, improved understanding of Arctic cloud formation is required, yet long-term measurements of the relevant cloud and aerosol properties remain sparse. We present the first long-term study of cloud residuals, i.e. particles that were involved in cloud formation and cloud processes, in Arctic low-level clouds measured at Zeppelin Observatory, Svalbard. To continuously sample cloud droplets and ice crystals and separate them from non-activated aerosol, a ground-based counter-flow virtual impactor inlet system (GCVI) was used. A detailed evaluation of the GCVI measurements, using concurrent cloud particle size distributions, meteorological parameters, and aerosol measurements, is presented for both warm and cold clouds, and the potential contribution of sampling artefacts is discussed in detail. We find an excellent agreement of the GCVI sampling efficiency of liquid clouds using two independent approaches. The 2-year data set of cloud residual size distributions and number concentrations reveals that the cloud residuals follow the typical seasonal cycle of Arctic aerosol, with a maximum concentration in spring and summer and a minimum concentration in the late autumn and winter months. We observed average activation diameters in the range of 58–78 nm for updraught velocities below 1 m s−1. A cluster analysis also revealed cloud residual size distributions that were dominated by Aitken mode particles down to around 20–30 nm. During the winter months, some of these small particles may be the result of ice, snow, or ice crystal shattering artefacts in the GCVI inlet; however, cloud residuals down to 20 nm in size were also observed during conditions when artefacts are less likely.

CASCADE – The Circum-Arctic Sediment CArbon DatabasE

Jannik Martens; Evgeny Romankevich; Igor Semiletov; Birgit Wild; Bart van Dongen; Jorien Vonk; Tommaso Tesi; Natalia Shakhova; Oleg V. Dudarev; Denis Kosmach; Alexander Vetrov; Leopold Lobkovsky; Nikolay Belyaev; Robie W. Macdonald; Anna J. Pieńkowski; Timothy I. Eglinton; Negar Haghipour; Salve Dahle; Michael L. Carroll; Emmelie K. L. Åström; Jacqueline M. Grebmeier; Lee W. Cooper; Göran Possnert; Örjan Gustafsson
2021 | Earth Syst. Sci. Data | 13

Using correlations between observed equivalent black carbon and aerosol size distribution to derive size resolved BC mass concentration: a method applied on long-term observations performed at Zeppelin station, Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard

2021 | Tellus Ser. B-Chem. Phys. Meteorol. | 7 (1) (1-17)

The aim of this study was to explore particle size dependent properties by combining long-term observations
of equivalent black carbon (eBC) and number size distributions to investigate their correlation as function of
particle size. The work was conducted in two main parts. The first part consisted of a short laboratory
experiment to compare observed total particle light absorption (sigma_abs) with that observed according to particle
size by using a combination of a Differential Mobility Analyzer (DMA) and a Particle Soot Absorption
Photometer (PSAP). The laboratory study confirmed strong similarities between the observed and derived
r abs . In the second part the statistical approach using correlation between the r abs and the dN of each bin of
the number size distribution was tested on long-term data ranging from 2002 to 2010 observed at Zeppelin
station, Ny-Ålesund Svalbard. The data was clustered according to the number size distribution and grouped
in four major categories: Washout, Nucleation, Intermediate and Polluted. Each category presented different
features with respect to the derived eBC mass distributions, the Intermediate category showed similarities to
the few available Single Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) observations in the Arctic. Overall, the statistical
distribution of eBC, according to particle size, presented a larger dynamical range in the location of the
mode(s). To check for consistency, the eBC mass distributions were transformed into number based eBC size
distribution and compared to the observed total number size distribution. Whereas the Washout, Nucleation
and Intermediate categories presented plausible number distributions, the Polluted category displayed a mode
at small sizes (about 50nm) that was significantly exaggerated

Sea Spray Aerosol Chamber Study on Selective Transfer and Enrichment of Free and Combined Amino Acids

Nadja Triesch; Manuela van Pinxteren; Matthew Salter; Christian Stolle; Ryan Pereira; Paul Zieger; Hartmut Herrmann

Temporal and Spatial Variability of Micropollutants in a Brazilian Urban River

Quadra, G.R.; Li, Z.; Silva, P.S.A.; Barros, N.; Roland, F.; Sobek, A.
2021 | Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. | 81 (142-154)

Overall health impacts of a potential increase in cycle commuting in Stockholm, Sweden.

Sommar J.N.; Johansson, C.; Lövenheim B.; Schantz, P.; Markstedt, A.; Strömgren, M.; Stigson, H.; Forsberg, B.
2021 | Scand J Public Health

Aims:To estimate the overall health impact of transferring commuting trips from car to bicycle.Methods:In this study registry information on the location of home and work for residents in Stockholm County was used to obtain the shortest travel route on a network of bicycle paths and roads. Current modes of travel to work were based on travel survey data. The relation between duration of cycling and distance cycled was established as a basis for selecting the number of individuals that normally would drive a car to work, but have a distance to work that they could bicycle within 30 minutes. The change in traffic flows was estimated by a transport model (LuTrans) and effects on road traffic injuries and fatalities were estimated by using national hospital injury data. Effects on air pollution concentrations were modelled using dispersion models.Results:Within the scenario, 111,000 commuters would shift from car to bicycle. On average the increased physical activity reduced the one-year mortality risk by 12% among the additional bicyclists. Including the number of years lost due to morbidity, the total number of disability adjusted life-years gained was 696. The amount of disability adjusted life-years gained in the general population due to reduced air pollution exposure was 471. The number of disability adjusted life-years lost by traffic injuries was 176. Also including air pollution effects among bicyclists, the net benefit was 939 disability adjusted life-years per year.Conclusions:Large health benefits were estimated by transferring commuting by car to bicycle.

The development of a miniaturised balloon-borne cloud water sampler and its first deployment in the high Arctic

Julika Zinke; Matthew E. Salter; Caroline Leck; Michael J. Lawler; Grace C.E. Porter; Michael P. Adams; Ian M. Brooks; Benjamin J. Murray; Paul Zieger
2021 | Tellus Ser. B-Chem. Phys. Meteorol. | 73 (1) (1-12)

The chemical composition of cloud water can be used to infer the sources of particles upon which cloud droplets and ice crystals have formed. In order to obtain cloud water for analysis of chemical composition for elevated clouds in the pristine high Arctic, balloon-borne active cloud water sampling systems are the optimal approach. However, such systems have not been feasible to deploy previously due to their weight and the challenging environmental conditions. We have taken advantage of recent developments in battery technology to develop a miniaturised cloud water sampler for balloon-borne collection of cloud water. Our sampler is a bulk sampler with a cloud drop cutoff diameter of approximately 8mm and an estimated collection efficiency of 70%. The sampler was heated to prevent excessive ice accumulation and was able to operate for several hours under the extreme conditions encountered in the high Arctic. We have tested and deployed the new sampler on a tethered balloon during the Microbiology-Ocean-Cloud-Coupling in the High Arctic (MOCCHA) campaign in August and September 2018 close to the North pole. The sampler was able to successfully retrieve cloud water samples that were analysed to determine their chemical composition as well as their ice-nucleating activity. Given the pristine conditions found in the high Arctic we have placed significant emphasis on the development of a suitable cleaning procedure to minimise background contamination by the sampler itself.

Contact information

Visiting addresses:

Geovetenskapens Hus,
Svante Arrhenius väg 8, Stockholm

Arrheniuslaboratoriet, Svante Arrhenius väg 16, Stockholm (Unit for Toxicological Chemistry)

Mailing address:
Department of Environmental Science
Stockholm University
106 91 Stockholm

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Stella Papadopoulou
Science Communicator
Phone +46 (0)8 674 70 11