Surface composition of size-selected sea salt particles under the influence of organic acids studied in situ using synchrotron radiation X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy
Sea spray aerosols play a key role in the climate system by scattering solar radiation and by serving as cloud condensation nuclei. Despite their importance, the impact of sea spray aerosols on global climate remains highly uncertain. One of the key knowledge gaps in our understanding of sea spray aerosol is the chemical composition of the particle surface, important for various atmospheric chemical processes, as a function of size and bulk composition. Here, we have applied X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) to determine the surface composition of both pure inorganic sea salt aerosols and sea salt aerosols spiked with an amino acid (phenylalanine) and a straight chain fatty acid (octanoic acid). Importantly, the use of a differential mobility analyser allowed size-selection of 150, 250 and 350 nm monodisperse aerosol particles for comparison to polydisperse aerosol particles. We observed enrichment of magnesium at the particle surfaces relative to chloride in all aerosols tested, across all particle sizes. Interestingly, the magnitude of this enrichment was dependent on the type of organic present in the solution as well as the particle size. Our results suggest that the observed enrichment in magnesium is an inorganic effect which can be either enhanced or diminished by the addition of organic substances.
Provningsjämförelse / Proficiency Test 2022-3, Närsalter / NutrientsDownload
Augmenting the Grammar of Science – The Community Science ExchangeDownload
Physical and Chemical Properties of Cloud Droplet Residuals and Aerosol Particles During the Arctic Ocean 2018 Expedition
Detailed knowledge of the physical and chemical properties and sources of particles that form clouds is especially important in pristine areas like the Arctic, where particle concentrations are often low and observations are sparse. Here, we present in situ cloud and aerosol measurements from the central Arctic Ocean in August–September 2018 combined with air parcel source analysis. We provide direct experimental evidence that Aitken mode particles (particles with diameters ≲70 nm) significantly contribute to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or cloud droplet residuals, especially after the freeze-up of the sea ice in the transition toward fall. These Aitken mode particles were associated with air that spent more time over the pack ice, while size distributions dominated by accumulation mode particles (particles with diameters ≳70 nm) showed a stronger contribution of oceanic air and slightly different source regions. This was accompanied by changes in the average chemical composition of the accumulation mode aerosol with an increased relative contribution of organic material toward fall. Addition of aerosol mass due to aqueous-phase chemistry during in-cloud processing was probably small over the pack ice given the fact that we observed very similar particle size distributions in both the whole-air and cloud droplet residual data. These aerosol–cloud interaction observations provide valuable insight into the origin and physical and chemical properties of CCN over the pristine central Arctic Ocean.