Source identification during the Great Dun Fell Cloud Experiment 1993
A characterisation of the sources influencing the site for the final field campaign of the EUROTRAC subproject GCE (Ground-based Cloud Experiment) at Great Dun Fell, Cumbria, Great Britain in April-May 1993 is presented. The sources were characterised mainly by means of aerosol filter and cascade impactor data, single particle analysis, gas data, data on aromatic organic compounds, cloud water ionic composition, measurements of aerosol size distributions and hygroscopic properties and various meteorological information. Receptor models applied on the aerosol filter and impactor data sets separately revealed two major source types being a marine sea spray source and a long-range transported anthropogenic pollution source. The results of the receptor models were largely consistent with the other observations used in the source identification. Periods of considerable anthropogenic pollution as well as almost pure marine air masses were clearly identified during the course of the experiment. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Observation and modelling of the processing of aerosol by a hill cap cloud.
Source identification during the Great Dun Fell Cloud Experiment 1993.
Microphysics of clouds: Model vs measurements
In order to study the relation between the initial aerosol particle spectrum at cloud base and the resulting droplet spectrum in cloud for the ''Ground-based Cloud Experiment'' field campaign at the Great Dun Fell in 1993 numerical model simulations have been performed. The droplet spectra were calculated from a microphysical model coupled to a dynamic air flow model. The resulting droplet spectra were compared with cloud droplet spectra measured with a forward scattering spectrometer probe. The size distribution and chemical composition of the initial aerosol population were derived from a combination of size distribution and size-segregated chemical measurements below cloud base. From this we concluded that the aerosol particles consisted almost entirely of an inorganic salt. As part of the sensitivity studies two different microphysical models were used, as well as the dynamic flow fields from two different air flow models. As in previous studies we found that the measured droplet spectra were broader and contained larger drops than the modelled spectra. From the sensitivity studies we identified fluctuations in the dynamics as the most likely explanation for these differences. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.
The reduced nitrogen budget of an orographic cloud.
Cloud droplet nucleation scavenging in relation to the size and hygroscopic behaviour of aerosol particles
The size distributions and hygroscopic growth spectra of aerosol particles were measured during the GCE cloud experiment at Great Dun Fell in the Pennine Hills in northern England. Hygroscopic growth is defined as the particle diameter at 90% RH divided by the particle diameter at 10% RH. The fraction of the aerosol particles scavenged by cloud droplets as a function of particle size was also measured. The general aerosol type was a mixture of marine and aged anthropogenic aerosols. The Aitken and accumulation mode numbers (average +/- 1 S.D.) were 1543 +/- 1078 and 1023 +/- 682 cm(-3), respectively. The mean diameters were in the range 30-100 nm and 100-330 nm. The hygroscopic growth spectra were bimodal about half the time. The less-hygroscopic particles had average growth factors of 1.06, 1.06, 1.03, 1.03, and 1.03 for particle diameters of 50, 75, 110, 165, and 265 nm, respectively. For the more-hygroscopic particles of the same sizes, the average hygroscopic growth was 1.34, 1.37, 1.43, 1.47, and 1.53. The effects of ageing on the aerosol particle size distribution and on hygroscopic behaviour are discussed. The scavenged fraction of aerosol particles was a strong function of particle diameter. The diameter with 50% scavenging was in the range 90-220 nm. No tail of smaller particles activated to cloud drops was observed. A small tail of larger particles that remained in the interstitial aerosol can be explained by there being a small fraction of less-hygroscopic particles. A weak correlation between the integral dry particle diameter and the diameter with 50% scavenging was seen. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Utvärdering av sotmätningar utförda enligt OECD-metoden. Resultat från mätningar i Stockholm mars – maj 1996.
Night-time Formation an Occurence of New Particles Associated with Orographic Clouds.
Experimental determination of the connection between cloud droplet size and its dry residue size
The droplet activation process and droplet growth was studied during early stages of the formation of orographically-induced clouds. The experimental results were compared with the results obtained with a closed parcel, adiabatic cloud model. Good agreement was in most cases found between model and measurements with respect to cloud droplet number concentration, cloud droplet solute concentration and particle sizes scavenged due to cloud droplet nucleation. The experimental results were mainly obtained with a new instrument, the droplet aerosol analyser (DAA), which allows the determination of ambient sizes of cloud droplets and interstitial aerosol particles directly connected with the size of its dry residue in a two-parameter data acquisition. The resulting three-dimensional data set (ambient size, dry size, number concentration) was utilised to determine several cloud/aerosol properties, whereof some unique. (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Phase partitioning of aerosol constituents in cloud based on single-particle and bulk analysis
Single-particle analysis, performed by laser microprobe mass spectrometry and bulk analytical techniques were used to study aerosol-cloud interactions within the third field campaign of the EUROTRAC subproject ''ground-based cloud experiments'' at the Great Dun Fell, Cumbria, U.K. in spring 1993. The shape of the ridge made it possible for ground-based instrumentation to sample similar parcels of air before, during and after their transit through the cloud. A single jet five-stage minicascade impactor was used for sampling particles of the interstitial aerosol. A second impactor worked in tandem with a counterflow virtual impactor and collected residues of cloud droplets. Considering marine conditions largest droplets nucleated on sea-salt particles, whereas smaller droplets were formed on sulphate and methane sulphonate containing particles. This clearly indicates chemical inhomogeneities in the droplet phase. Particles, which were disfavoured by droplet formation, often contained the highest amounts of water-insoluble carbonaceous matter. For the submicron size range we found that the carbonaceous matter was always internally mixed with sulphate. The fraction of carbonaceous matter increased with decreasing size. A detectable fraction of particles remained in the cloud interstitial air, although they were in size as well as in composition suitable to form cloud droplets. The findings confirm that nucleation is the most important process affecting phase partitioning in cloud, but that spatial and temporal variations of water vapour supersaturation have also an influence on the observed phase partitioning. Proton induced X-ray emission analysis and light absorption measurements of filter samples showed that the average scavenged fraction was 0.77 for sulphur and 0.57 for soot in clouds formed by continental influenced air and 0.62 and 0.44, respectively, for marine influenced clouds. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.
Observations and modelling of the processing of aerosol by a hill cap cloud
Observations are presented of the aerosol size distribution both upwind and downwind of the Great Dun Fell cap cloud. Simultaneous measurements of the cloud microphysics and cloud chemistry, and of the chemical composition of the aerosol both upwind and downwind of the hill were made along with measurements of sulphur dioxide, hydrogen peroxide and ozone. These observations are used for initialisation of, and for comparison with the predictions of a model of the air flow, cloud microphysics and cloud chemistry of the system. A broad droplet size distribution is often observed near to the hill summit, seemingly produced as a result of a complex supersaturation profile and by mixing between parcels with different ascent trajectories. The model generates several supersaturation peaks as the airstream ascends over the complex terrain, activating increasing numbers of droplets. In conditions where sulphate production in-cloud (due to the oxidation of S(IV) by hydrogen peroxide and ozone) is observed, there is a marked effect on the chemical evolution of the aerosol particles on which the droplets form. When sulphate production occurs, a significant modification of the aerosol size distribution and hygroscopic properties is both predicted and observed. The addition of sulphate mass to those aerosol particles nucleation scavenged by the cloud generally increases the ease with which they are subsequently able to act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Often, this will lead to an increase in the number of CCN available for subsequent cloud formation, although this latter effect is shown to be strongly dependent upon the activation history of the droplets and the concentration of pollutant gases present in the interstitial air. Situations are also identified where cloud processing could lead to a reduction in the capacity of smaller aerosol to act as CCN. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd.