Temporal Changes in Concentrations of Lead and Other Trace Metals in Free-Ranging Eurasian Eagle Owls Bubo bubo in Sweden

Björn Helander; Marcus Sundbom; Agneta A. Runkel; Anders Bignert
2019 | Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.

Patterns of lead and other trace metals were examined in 122 Eurasian eagle owls Bubo bubo found dead in Sweden in the period 1978–2013. Environmental lead (Pb) has decreased over recent decades from reduced anthropogenic emissions but mortality by Pb poisoning is still frequently reported for avian raptors and scavengers exposed to Pb ammunition. One objective here was to determine if Pb concentrations in a nocturnal non-scavenging raptor follow the general decline observed in other biota. Pb concentration in owl liver was significantly correlated with body weight, sex, latitude, longitude and season. Pb showed a significant decreasing trend towards north and west. Starved birds had significantly higher concentrations. Total Pb concentrations in liver averaged 0.179 μg g−1 dry weight (median 0.103) and decreased by 5.6% per year 1978–2013, or 5.3% after adjustment for confounding factors, similar to trends in other species. Among 14 other trace elements only antimony and arsenic showed decreasing trends. Lead isotope ratios 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb increased from 1.138 and 2.408 in 1978–1985 to 1.170 and 2.435 in 2010–2013, respectively, demonstrating that the decreasing Pb concentration in eagle owl is related to the phase-out of leaded gasoline in Europe, where Pb additives had much lower isotope ratios than natural lead in Swedish soils. Only one incidence of suspected Pb poisoning (40.7 μg g−1 in liver) was observed indicating that poisoning from ingestion of metallic lead is rare (< 1%) in eagle owl in Sweden, in contrast to what has been reported for eagles.

Provningsjämförelse / Proficiency Test 2017-5, Avloppsvatten / Wastewater

2017 | ACES rapport, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University | Report No: 21
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Provningsjämförelse / Proficiency Test 2017-4, Jonbalans / Ion Balance

2017 | ACES rapport, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University | Report No: 20
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Sea-air exchange patterns along the central and outer East Siberian Arctic Shelf as inferred from continuous CO2, stable isotope and bulk chemistry measurements

Christoph Humborg; Marc C. Geibel; Leif G. Anderson; Göran Björk; Carl-Magnus Mörth; Marcus Sundbom; Brett F. Thornton; Barbara Deutsch; Erik Gustafsson; Bo Gustafsson; Jörgen Ek; Igor P. Semiletov
2017 | Global Biogeochem Cycles | 31 (7) (1173-1193)

This large-scale quasi-synoptic study gives a comprehensive picture of sea-air CO2 fluxes during the melt season in the central and outer Laptev Sea (LS) and East Siberian Sea (ESS). During a 7 week cruise we compiled a continuous record of both surface water and air CO2 concentrations, in total 76,892 measurements. Overall, the central and outer parts of the ESAS constituted a sink for CO2, and we estimate a median uptake of 9.4 g C m−2 yr−1 or 6.6 Tg C yr−1. Our results suggest that while the ESS and shelf break waters adjacent to the LS and ESS are net autotrophic systems, the LS is a net heterotrophic system. CO2 sea-air fluxes for the LS were 4.7 g C m−2 yr−1, and for the ESS we estimate an uptake of 7.2 g C m−2 yr−1. Isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon (δ13CDIC and δ13CCO2) in the water column indicates that the LS is depleted in δ13CDIC compared to the Arctic Ocean (ArcO) and ESS with an offset of 0.5‰ which can be explained by mixing of δ13CDIC-depleted riverine waters and 4.0 Tg yr−1 respiration of OCter; only a minor part (0.72 Tg yr−1) of this respired OCter is exchanged with the atmosphere. Property-mixing diagrams of total organic carbon and isotope ratio (δ13CSPE-DOC) versus dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration diagram indicate conservative and nonconservative mixing in the LS and ESS, respectively. We suggest land-derived particulate organic carbon from coastal erosion as an additional significant source for the depleted δ13CDIC.

Provningsjämförelse / Proficiency Test 2017-3, Närsalter / Nutrients

2017 | ACES rapport, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University | Report No: 19
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Provningsjämförelse / Proficiency Test 2017-2, Suspenderade ämnen och slam/ Suspended solids and sludge

2017 | ACES rapport, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University | Report No: 18
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Export of calcium carbonate corrosive waters from the East Siberian Sea

Leif G. Anderson; Jörgen Ek; Ylva Ericson; Christoph Humborg; Igor Semiletov; Marcus Sundbom; Adam Ulfsbo
2017 | Biogeosciences | 14 (1811-1823)
acidification , arctic-ocean , carbon cycle , SWERUS

The Siberian shelf seas are areas of extensive biogeochemical transformation of organic matter, both of marine and terrestrial origin. This in combination with brine production from sea ice formation results in a cold bottom water of relative high salinity and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Data from the SWERUS-C3 expedition compiled on the icebreaker Oden in July to September 2014 show the distribution of such waters at the outer shelf, as well as their export into the deep central Arctic basins. Very high pCO2 water, up to ∼ 1000 µatm, was observed associated with high nutrients and low oxygen concentrations. Consequently, this water had low saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate down to less than 0.8 for calcite and 0.5 for aragonite. Waters undersaturated in aragonite were also observed in the surface in waters at equilibrium with atmospheric CO2; however, at these conditions the cause of under-saturation was low salinity from river runoff and/or sea ice melt. The calcium carbonate corrosive water was observed all along the continental margin and well out into the deep Makarov and Canada basins at a depth from about 50 m depth in the west to about 150 m in the east. These waters of low aragonite saturation state are traced in historic data to the Canada Basin and in the waters flowing out of the Arctic Ocean north of Greenland and in the western Fram Strait, thus potentially impacting the marine life in the North Atlantic Ocean.

Provningsjämförelse / Proficiency Test 2017-1, Metaller i vatten / Metals in water

2017 | ACES rapport, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University | Report No: 17
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Provningsjämförelse / Proficiency Test 2016-5, Avloppsvatten / Wastewater

2016 | ACES rapport, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University | Report No: 11

Contrasting composition of terrigenous organic matter in the dissolved, particulate and sedimentary organic carbon pools on the outer East Siberian Arctic Shelf

Joan A. Salvadó; Tommaso Tesi; Marcus Sundbom; Emma Karlsson; Martin Kruså; Igor P. Semiletov; Elena Panova; Örjan Gustafsson
2016 | Biogeosciences | 13 (6121-6138)

Fluvial discharge and coastal erosion of the permafrost-dominated East Siberian Arctic delivers large quantities of terrigenous organic carbon (Terr-OC) to marine waters. The composition and fate of the remobilized Terr-OC needs to be better constrained as it impacts the potential for a climate–carbon feedback. In the present study, the bulk isotope (δ13C and Δ14C) and macromolecular (lignin-derived phenols) composition of the cross-shelf exported organic carbon (OC) in different marine pools is evaluated. For this purpose, as part of the SWERUS-C3 expedition (July–September 2014), sediment organic carbon (SOC) as well as water column (from surface and near-bottom seawater) dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) samples were collected along the outer shelves of the Kara Sea, Laptev Sea and East Siberian Sea. The results show that the Lena River and the DOC may have a preferential role in the transport of Terr-OC to the outer shelf. DOC concentrations (740–3600 µg L−1) were 1 order of magnitude higher than POC (20–360 µg L−1), with higher concentrations towards the Lena River plume. The δ13C signatures in the three carbon pools varied from −23.9 ± 1.9 ‰ in the SOC, −26.1 ± 1.2 ‰ in the DOC and −27.1 ± 1.9 ‰ in the POC. The Δ14C values ranged between −395 ± 83 (SOC), −226 ± 92 (DOC) and −113 ± 122 ‰ (POC). These stable and radiocarbon isotopes were also different between the Laptev Sea and the East Siberian Sea. Both DOC and POC showed a depleted and younger trend off the Lena River plume. Further, the Pacific inflow and the sea-ice coverage, which works as a barrier preventing the input of “young” DOC and POC, seem to have a strong influence in these carbon pools, presenting older and more enriched δ13C signatures under the sea-ice extent. Lignin phenols exhibited higher OC-normalized concentrations in the SOC (0.10–2.34 mg g−1 OC) and DOC (0.08–2.40 mg g−1 OC) than in the POC (0.03–1.14 mg g−1 OC). The good relationship between lignin and Δ14C signatures in the DOC suggests that a significant fraction of the outer-shelf DOC comes from “young” Terr-OC. By contrast, the slightly negative correlation between lignin phenols and Δ14C signatures in POC, with higher lignin concentrations in older POC from near-bottom waters, may reflect the off-shelf transport of OC from remobilized permafrost in the nepheloid layer. Syringyl ∕ vanillyl and cinnamyl ∕ vannillyl phenol ratios presented distinct clustering between DOC, POC and SOC, implying that those pools may be carrying different Terr-OC of partially different origin. Moreover, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid to vanillyl phenol ratios and p-coumaric acid to ferulic acid ratios, used as a diagenetic indicators, enhanced in POC and SOC, suggesting more degradation within these pools. Overall, the key contrast between enhanced lignin yields both in the youngest DOC and the oldest POC samples reflects a significant decoupling of terrestrial OC sources and pathways.

Provningsjämförelse / Proficiency Test 2016-4, Jonbalans / Ion Balance

2016 | ACES rapport, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry, Stockholm University | Report No: 10

Kvicksilver i kalkade och sura sjöar

2016 | Sötvatten 2016 (32-35) | ISBN: 978-91-87967-31-3

Kalkning av sura sjöar minskar halterna av kvicksilver i fisk. I sura, okalkade sjöar är halterna högre men sjunker långsamt när vattnets pH återhämtar sig. När kalkningen upphör kan kvicksilverhalterna i insjöfisk öka igen. Det visar IKEU:s långa tidsserier för kvicksilver i abborre 1998-2015.

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