Total tin and organotin speciation in historic layers of antifouling paint on leisure boat hulls

M. Lagerström; J. Strand; B. Eklund; E. Ytreberg
2017 | Environ. Pollut.

A novel XRF method to measure environmental release of copper and zinc from antifouling paints

Ytreberg E; Lagerström M.; Holmqvist A.; Eklund B.; Elwing H.; Dahlström M.; Dahl P.; Dahlström M.
2017 | Environ. Pollut. | 225 (490-496)

Biofouling of leisure boats as a source of metal pollution.

Bighiu MA; , Eriksson Wiklund AK, Eklund B.
2016 | Springer-Verlag, Germany | 24 (1) (997-1006)

Pollutant concentrations and toxic effects on the red alga Ceramium tenuicorne of sediments from natural harbors and small vessel harbors on the west coast of Sweden

2016 | Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. | 70 (3) (583-594)
environmental protection agency , flouranthene , harbour sediment , hull , motor exhaust , pollutant concentration , pollution index , risk assessment , sediment concentration , sediment core , sediment sample , sediment toxicity , surface sediment , water framework directive , wood

This investigation set out to analyze the toxicity of surface sediments in a number of natural harbors and small boat harbors on the west coast of Sweden. This was done with the growth inhibition method with Ceramium tenuicorne. Also, concentrations of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), irgarol, organotin compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediments were analyzed. The small boat harbors were heavily polluted by Cu, Zn, butyltins, and PAHs, and to a lesser extent by Pb. The Cu, Pb, Zn, and butyltins probably originated from their past and/or present use in antifouling paints, whereas the PAHs probably had multiple sources, including boat motor exhausts. The measured toxicity of the sediment was generally related to their Cu, Zn, and butyltin content, although other toxic substances than those analyzed here probably contributed to the toxicity in some of the harbors. The natural harbor sediments contained less pollutants and were less toxic than the small boat harbor sediments. Nevertheless, our data indicate that the boating pressure today may be high enough to produce toxic effects even in natural harbors in pristine areas. The strongest relationship between toxicity and the major pollutants was obtained when the sediment toxicity was expressed as gram wet weight per liter compared with gram dry weight per liter and gram total organic carbon per liter. Hence, for pollutants that can be elutriated with natural sea water, sediment toxicity expressed as gram wet weight per liter appears preferable.

Metal contamination at recreational boatyards linked to the use of antifouling paints—investigation of soil and sediment with a field portable XRF

2016 | Environ Sci Pollut Res

Induced production of brominated aromatic compounds in the alga Ceramium tenuicorne

Dahlgren, E; Enhus, C; Lindqvist, D; Eklund, B; Asplund, L
2015 | Environ Sci Pollut Res | 22 (22) (18107-18114)

Ansvar för förorenad mark på båtuppläggningsplatser med fokus på ideella föreningar

D. Langlet; D. Eklund; B. Eklund
2014 | Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM) | Report No: 222

Liability for Contaminated Land at Leisure Boat- yards with a Focus on Non-Profit Associations:
Summaries of completed soil surveys at 34 leisure boatyards in Swedish coastal municipalities have shown that such areas are often highly contaminated by a va- riety of known hazardous substances and compounds, such as various metals (copper, zinc, lead, mercury, cadmium) and organic compounds (organotin com- pounds (e.g. TBT), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) ). TBT, PAHs, lead, cadmium and mercur y compounds are among the priority substances which, according to the EU’s Water Framework Directive and its daughter directives, are to be phased out since they pose a significant risk to the aquatic environment.These are also substances that are important to remove from soil.
A rough estimate indicates that there are about 2500 places in Sweden that may have been contaminated as a result of storage and maintenance work on pleasure boats alone.The report analyzes who bears the legal responsibi- lity for these polluted sites.The emphasis is on the public law responsibility for any assessment and decontamination that may be required under Chapter 10 of the Environ- mental Code but the potential legal consequences of land contamination in the relationship between landowners and leaseholders are also looked at.
The County Administrative Boards manage most of the decontamination operations on the basis of an or- der of priority based on risk classification. Leisure boa- tyards are usually categorized as two out of four on the risk classification scale. However, with respect to leisure boatyards it is the municipalities that are supervisory authorities and thus have the mandate to, inter alia, re- quire the person responsible under the Environmental Code to take decontamination measures.
The basic rule regarding liability for the remediation of contaminated land and water areas is that any per- son who pursue or have pursued an activity or taken a measure that is a contributory cause of the contami- nation (termed “operators”) are liable for remedying it to the extent that can be considered reasonable.The reasonability assessment that this necessitates includes both environmental factors, including planned future land use, and factors relating to the operator, including how much time has elapsed since the contamination took place and the extent to which the environmental risks were known at that time. Joint and several liability applies which means that any operator who contribu- ted to the contamination may be required to pay for the remediation. However, any operator who shows
that her contribution to the environmental damage is so insignificant that it does not by itself justify any remedial action is responsible only for such portion of the remedial action as corresponds to her own contri- bution to the harm.
In situations where no operator can be made to perform or pay for remediation the property owner becomes liable for remediation even when she had nothing to do with the polluting activity. However, this applies only if the property owner acquired the pro- perty after 31 December 1998 and if she then knew or should have discovered the contamination.
Whether leisure boat clubs are to be held liable for contamination depends on whether they are consi- dered operators of the polluting activity. That, in turn, depends on whether they are considered to have the factual and legal ability to take action against damage or detriment caused by the activity. Relevant case law clearly supports that leisure boat clubs are to be re- garded as operators with respect to activities carried out by their respective members and thus liable for any contamination. That does not preclude that indi- vidual members may also be considered operators. In most cases, however, the potential liability of individual members is of less importance since the above men- tioned exception to the principle of joint and several liability makes it practically very difficult to hold them liable. However, any person who has polluted her own property through maintenance work on pleasure boats should be easier to hold liable were the municipality to pursue such a case. With respect to leisure boat clubs that lease the land where they operate the land owner may have the right to require that the land be restored to the state in which it was before the lease started, even if that is not explicitly stated in the lease agreement.The land owner may also be able to make a claim based on tort law if, for example, the value of the land decreases due to the leaseholder’s polluting activities.
In addition to liability for remediation there is an equally important responsibility to prevent damage from ongoing activities. This entails an obligation to implement protective measures and take any other precautions that are not unreasonable in view of the benefits of the measures compared to the costs.This obligation applies to leisure boat clubs as well as to individual boat owners and may, if necessary, be supple- mented by injunctions issued by the regulatory autho- rity. It is important for the leisure boat clubs to adopt clear rules for their members and make sure that they are complied with.
Lease agreements can also be an important instru- ment for regulating how leisure boatyards are used, in- cluding by specifying substances that may not be used
and measures that must be taken to prevent the spread of toxic paint or other contaminants that have already reached the soil.
There may also be reason for the legislature to consider making leisure boatyards subject to a per- mit requirement. Such a requirement would clarify the responsibility and send a signal about the potentially serious consequences of activities at leisure boatyards.

Spring development of hydrolittoral rock shore communities on wave-exposed and sheltered sites in the northern Baltic proper.

Eriksson Wiklund, A.-K.; Malm, T.; Honkakangas, J.; Eklund, B.
2012 | Oceanologia | 54 (1) (75-107)

Spring development in the hydrolittoral zone was investigated at five wave-sheltered and five wave-exposed sites on four occasions from late March to late May (every third week). The number of species was higher at the sheltered locations and increased significantly over time. The difference in community structure was significant: over 95% of the Bray-Curtis dissimilarities were due to the biomass of only eleven taxa, and the total Bray-Curtis dissimilarity between exposed and sheltered sites was 75%. Macroalgae made up 70-80% of the total biomass and was dominated by filamentous species. In contrast to previous studies, macroalgal biomass was higher at the exposed sites, which may be due to the fact that this was a spring study, unlike previous studies, which were conducted during summer.

Effect of Organic Complexation on Copper Accumulation and Toxicity to the Estuarine Red Macroalga Ceramium tenuicorne: A Test of the Free Ion Activity Model

Ytreberg, E; Karlsson, J; Hoppe, S; Eklund, B; Ndungu, K
2011 | Environ. Sci. Technol. | 45 (7) (3145-3153)

Comparison of toxicity and release rates of Cu and Zn from anti-fouling paints leached in natural and artificial brackish seawater.

Ytreberg, E., Karlsson, J., Eklund, B.
2010 | Sci. Total Environ. | 408 (2459-2466)

Toxicity of anti-fouling paints for use on pleasure boats and vessels to non-target organisms representing three trophic levels

Karlsson, J., Ytreberg, E., Eklund, B.
2010 | Environ. Pollut. | 158 (681-687)

Assessing Chemical Risks: Evaluating Products Rather than Substances, and the Case of Anti-fouling Paints.

Eklund, B. Karlsson, J.

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