Extensive organohalogen contamination in wildlife from a site in the Yangtze River Delta
Comparison of organohalogen compounds in white-tailed sea eagle egg laid in1941 with five eggs from 1996 to 2001.
Spatial and temporal trends and patterns of PBDE:s and HBCDD in fish from Swedish fresh water and marine environment.
OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in Swedish marine and fresh water environment – an overview
Trends and exposure of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs in Baltic biota
Characterization of an abundant and novel methyl- and methoxy-substituted brominated diphenyl ether isolated from whale blubber
Modelling Relationships between Baltic Sea Herring (Clupea harengus) Biology and Contaminant Concentrations Using Multivariate Data Analysis
Baltic Sea herring (Clupea harengus) is a pelagic, zoo-planktivorous fish and young (2-5 years old) individuals of this species are sampled annually in the Swedish marine monitoring program. This study determined concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in dorsal muscle from herring (n = 60) of varying age (2-13 years), weight (25-200 g), and body length (16-29 cm) caught at three locations in the Swedish part of the Baltic Proper. In order to ensure that the fish biclogy was as varied as possible, though still similar from all sampling sites, the fish to be chemically analyzed were selected from a large number of fish with determined biology using Multivariate Design. In statistical evaluation of the data, univariate and multivariate data analysis techniques, e.g. principal components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares regression (PLS), and orthogonal PLS (OPLS), were used. The results showed that the fish are exposed to a cocktail of contaminants and levels are presented. Significant OPLS models were found for all biological variables versus concentrations of OCs and BFRs, showing that fish biology covaries with fish contaminant concentrations. Correlation coefficients were as high as 0.98 for e.g. beta HCH concentration (wet weight) versus the lipid content. Lastly, the DC concentrations in herring muscle were modeled against the BFR concentrations to determine whether concentrations of either could be used to predict the other. It was found that OPLS models allowed BFR concentrations to be predicted from OC concentrations with high, but varying, accuracy (R-2 Ys between 0.93 to 0.75). Thus, fish biology and contaminant concentrations are interwoven, and fish biological parameters can be used to calculate (predict) contaminant concentrations. It is also possible to predict the BFR concentrations in an individual fish from its concentrations of OCs with very high accuracy.
A comparison of PCB bioaccumulation factors between an arctic and a temperate marine food web
To test how environmental conditions in the Arctic and the resulting ecological adaptations affect accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPS) in the marine food web, bioaccumulation of four polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an arctic (Barents Sea 77 degrees N-82 degrees N) and a temperate marine (Baltic Sea 54 degrees N-62 degrees N) food web were compared Three different trophic levels were studied (zooplankton. fish, and seal), representing the span from first-level consumer to top predator. Previously published high-quality data on PCB water concentrations in the two areas were used for calculation of bioaccumulation factors (BAF) BAF was calculated as the ratio of the PCB concentration in the organism ([PCB](org); pg/kg lipid) to the dissolved water concentration (C(w), pg/L). The BAF(Arctic):BAF(Temperature) ratios were above 1 for all four PCB congeners in zooplankton (6.4-138) and planktivorous fish (2.9-5.0)), whereas the ratios were below 1 in seal The mean ratio between arctic and temperate BAFs for all trophic levels and congeners (BAF(Arctic) BAF(Temperate)) was 4.8. When the data were corrected for the seawater temperature difference between the two ecosystems, the ratio was 2 0 We conclude that bioaccumulation differences caused by ecological or physiological adaptations of organisms between the two ecosystems were well within a water concentration variability of 50%. Further, our data support the hypothesis that lower seawater temperature lead to a thermodynamically favoured passive partitioning to organic matrices and thus elevated ambient BAFs in the Arctic compared to the Baltic Sea This would imply that bioaccumulation in the Arctic may be described in the same way as bioaccumulation in temperate regions. e g by the use of mechanistic models parameterised for the Arctic. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Polybrominated and Mixed Brominated/Chlorinated Dibenzo-p-Dioxins in Sponge (Ephydatia fluviatilis) from the Baltic Sea
Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBODs) have recently been found in the Baltic Sea at concentrations 1000 times above that of the chlorinated analogs (PCDDs), yet their sources are undefined. Marine production of organobrominated compounds by sponges is well documented. The objective of the current study was to investigate the potential for an aquatic sponge (Ephydatia fluviatilis), common to the Baltic Sea, to produce PBODs and other organobromine compounds in the field. Mono- to pentaBDDs as well as several mixed brominated/chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (Br/Cl-DDs), PODS and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were quantified in sponge from the SW Baltic. Concentrations of individual PBDDs in the range 1-80 ng per g extractable organic matter were similar as in blue mussels from the Baltic Sea and about 25 000 times higher than 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time Br/Cl-DDs are reported in biota from a background environment While this study does not point out sponges as a dominant source, the concentrations of PBDDs in sponge relative to related anthropogenic compounds such as PBDEs and PCDDs as well as the relative abundance of brominated dioxins and furans strengthens the idea of natural production.