Two new publications are now available online, one database compilation of compounds in literature evaluated for their transthyretin binding potency and one in silico study based on that database.
Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 2015 407:5625-5634
Tracing thyroid hormone-disrupting compounds: database compilation and structure-activity evaluation for an effect-directed analysis of sediment
Jana M. Weiss, Patrik L. Andersson, Jin Zhang, Eszter Simon, Pim E. G. Leonards, Timo Hamers, and Marja H. Lamoree
Abstract: A variety of anthropogenic compounds has been found to be capable of disrupting the endocrine systems of organisms, in laboratory studies as well as in wildlife. The most widely described endpoint is estrogenicity, but other hormonal disturbances, e.g., thyroid hormone disruption, are gaining more and more attention. Here, we present a review and chemical characterization, using principal component analysis, of organic compounds that have been tested for their capacity to bind competitively to the thyroid hormone transport protein transthyretin (TTR). The database contains 250 individual compounds and technical mixtures, of which 144 compounds are defined as TTR binders. Almost one third of these compounds (n = 52) were even more potent than the natural hormone thyroxine (T4). The database was used as a tool to assist in the identification of thyroid hormone-disrupting compounds (THDCs) in an effect-directed analysis (EDA) study of a sediment sample. Two compounds could be confirmed to contribute to the detected TTR-binding potency in the sediment sample, i.e., triclosan and nonylphenol technical mixture. They constituted less than 1 % of the TTR-binding potency of the unfractionated extract. The low rate of explained activity may be attributed to the challenges related to identification of unknown contaminants in combination with the limited knowledge about THDCs in general. This study demonstrates the need for databases containing compound-specific toxicological properties. In the framework of EDA, such a database could be used to assist in the identification and confirmation of causative compounds focusing on thyroid hormone disruption.
ES&T 2015 49:10099-10107
In Silico Approach To Identify Potential Thyroid Hormone Disruptors among Currently Known Dust Contaminants and Their Metabolites
Jin Zhang†, Jorke H. Kamstra‡, Mehdi Ghorbanzadeh†, Jana M. Weiss‡§, Timo Hamers‡, and Patrik L. Andersson*†
Abstract: Thyroid hormone disrupting chemicals (THDCs) interfere with the thyroid hormone system and may induce multiple severe physiological disorders. Indoor dust ingestion is a major route of THDCs exposure in humans, and one of the molecular targets of these chemicals is the hormone transporter transthyretin (TTR). To virtually screen indoor dust contaminants and their metabolites for THDCs targeting TTR, we developed a quantitative structure–activity relationship (QSAR) classification model. The QSAR model was applied to an in-house database including 485 organic dust contaminants reported from literature data and their 433in silico derived metabolites. The model predicted 37 (7.6%) dust contaminants and 230 (53.1%) metabolites as potential TTR binders. Four new THDCs were identified after testing 23 selected parent dust contaminants in a radio-ligand TTR binding assay; 2,2′,4,4′-tetrahydroxybenzophenone, perfluoroheptanesulfonic acid, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid. These chemicals competitively bind to TTR with 50% inhibition (IC50) values at or below 10 μM. Molecular docking studies suggested that these THDCs interacted similarly with TTR via the residue Ser117A, but their binding poses were dissimilar to the endogenous ligand T4. This study identified new THDCs using an in silicoapproach in combination with bioassay testing and highlighted the importance of metabolic activation for TTR binding.