Monoterpenes Are the Largest Source of Summertime Organic Aerosol in the Southeastern United States
In situ release rates of Cu and Zn from commercial antifouling paints at different salinitiesDownload
Air pollution as a risk factor in health impact assessments of a travel mode shift towards cycling
Air pollution as a risk factor in Health Impact Assessments of increased cycling
There is growing evidence that promotion of active commuting provide substantial health and environmental benefits by influencing air pollution, physical activity, accidents and noise. However, studies evaluating intervention and policies on mode shift from motorized transport to cycling have estimated impacts with varying validity and precision.
The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss estimation of air pollution exposure and its impact on in health impact assessment studies of shift from car driving to bicycling and to guide future assessments.
A systematic database search of PubMed and Google scholar was done from January 2000 to May 2016 according to PRISMA guidelines.
We identified 18 health impact assessment studies of mode shift that evaluated air pollution effects. Most of these studies investigated future hypothetic scenarios of increased cycling. Almost all used different emission predictive models for the estimation of reduced emission due to decreased car usage. The impact on general population was estimated using a comparative risk assessment approach in the majority of these studies whereas some used previous published cost estimates without considering any dose-response functions. Air pollution exposure during cycling was estimated based on the ventilation rate during cycling, pollutant concentration and trip duration. Most studies employed exposure response functions from studies comparing the background air pollution levels between cities to estimate the health impacts of local traffic emission. Effects of increased cycling contributed small health benefits for the general population but slightly increased risks associated with pollution exposure among those that shifted to cycling.
A large discrepancy between studies was observed due to, different health impact assessment approaches, different assumptions when creating scenarios, assumption for calculating inhaled dose, dose- response functions and availability of data. More research is required to address these methodological issues.
On particulate emissions from moving trains in a tunnel environment
Increasing attention is being paid to airborne particles in railway environments because of their potential to adversely affect health. In this study, we investigate the contribution of moving trains to both the concentration and size distribution of particles in tunnel environments. Real-time measurements were taken with high time-resolution instruments at a railway station platform in a tunnel in Stockholm in January 2013. The results show that individual trains stopping and starting at the platform substantially elevate the particulate concentrations with a mobility diameter greater than 100 nm. Two size modes of the particulate number concentrations were obtained. A mode of around 170 nm occurs when a train moves, while the other mode peaks at about 30 nm when there is no train in the station. By using principal component analysis (PCA), three contributing sources were identified on the basis of the classification of the sizes of the particles, namely railway-related mechanical wear, suspension due to the movement of trains and sparking of electric-powered components. It is concluded that the particulate matter released by individual moving trains is a key contributor to fine particles (100–500 nm) on the railway platform in a tunnel.
A call for action: Improve reporting of research studies to increase the scientific basis for regulatory decision‐making
This is a call for action to scientific journals to introduce reporting requirements for toxicity and
ecotoxicity studies. Such reporting requirements will support the use of peer‐reviewed research
studies in regulatory decision‐making. Moreover, this could improve the reliability and reproducibility
of published studies in general and make better use of the resources spent in research.